PSYC21H3 Lecture Notes - Parenting Styles

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19 Mar 2013
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Biological perspective
o Our instincts; our emotions are hardwired; they’ve evolved and helped us survive;
infants smiling-hardwired
o You can differentiate the emotions based on which clusters in your facial muscles are
moving
Learning perspective
o Variations of ppl expressing their emotions
o A particular parenting styles predicts how frequently a young child will be smiling; there
is a connection
Functional perspective:
o The most subtle and theoretical
o What goals? First figure that out then think abt what an emotion is doing
o What is the emotion signalling? Distress signals one thing, disgust signals another thing,
etc. ; allows you to communicate to the environment
o Emotions provide motivation; each emotion motivates you to do or think something (ex:
anger may motivate you to go fight for something or make an argument abt something
What are emotions?
Primary emotions
o Biological, tied to a particular stimulus, happen automatically
Secondary emotions
o Are often about other people, complicated social landscape, the basis for great dramas
Development of emotions
Primary emotions:
Before, there was no way of measuring emotions. Now, they came back with the face as the
focus to measure emotion.
Reflex smiles: no one knows why they’re smiling, they’re just doing it regardless of what you do
in the new born stage
Duschenne smile: involves the eyes crinkling, only happens when you’re really happy about
something (Duschenne is the guy who was playing around with everyone’s smiles)
o Greater left activation of the brain with Duschenne smiles than with non-Duschenne
smiles
Separation anxiety: timing of peaking in all different cultures are same but the amount of
peaking differs b/w cultures
Secondary Emotions
The inclusion of a judgement that’s helping in creating a real distinction
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Document Summary

Biological perspective: our instincts; our emotions are hardwired; they"ve evolved and helped us survive; infants smiling-hardwired, you can differentiate the emotions based on which clusters in your facial muscles are moving. Learning perspective: variations of ppl expressing their emotions, a particular parenting styles predicts how frequently a young child will be smiling; there is a connection. Distress signals one thing, disgust signals another thing, etc. ; allows you to communicate to the environment: emotions provide motivation; each emotion motivates you to do or think something (ex: anger may motivate you to go fight for something or make an argument abt something. Primary emotions: biological, tied to a particular stimulus, happen automatically. Secondary emotions: are often about other people, complicated social landscape, the basis for great dramas. Before, there was no way of measuring emotions. Now, they came back with the face as the focus to measure emotion.

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