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Lecture 12

PSYC21H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Intersubjectivity, Novelty Seeking, Baby Talk

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David Haley

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Lecture 12: Review
Goeth’s metamorphosis of plants and animals
- Expansion
Novelty seeking
Recognizing and identifying with others
Understanding others
- Contraction
Routines, stories, rituals
Stabilization of identity
- Challenges
Threats to self
- Relationships determine whether there is contraction and expansion and help in
achieving an optimal balance
Social dev: The problem of intersubjectivity
- Grew out of the mind body problem to mind-mind (between two ppl consciousness)
- Never able to bridge the concept of two ppl
- There is a boundary always have to keep something in reserve
- Hagel: A struggle to get recognition from another person that the eternal struggle
between two ppl to get recognition meant that it will always be a battle never an
emerging of 2 ppls consciousness
- Problem of why does this not happen all the time
- Can assert that humans to have consciousness they need to be recognized by another
person and this recognition gives them an ability to grow and develop and what ppl are
constantly seeking Hagel
- Creates a challenge in forming moments of intersubjectivity because the moment you
do not get recognized then all of a sudden it cascades and the person who is not
recognized does not provide recognition to the other person take away from any
potential for there to be intersubjectivity
- Intersubjectivity, speculation and bias
We have to be accurate when trying to recognize
Ability to theorize what is going on in someone else’s head there are a lot of
speculation and will use info that may not be relevant to making that theory about
Social development: relationship-biological approach
- We are not alone
- Where you learn to read ppls emotional states, differentiate your own emotional biases
from what you see out there comes back to the early relationships you have
- Relationships regulate our social brain development
Regulating functions replicate
Social biofeedback model
- Infant
Hardwired to detect contingency
Forms expectations/probability rules
Develops sense of agency and control
- Parent
Responds contingently to infant behaviour
Social synchrony
- Ideally the earlier interactions map on to the later interactions
- Early interaction provide a regulatory function for you biological development
- Question asked is once someone gets older, is the larger social interactions (social
synchrony’s) are they regulating your bio in the same way the parent was regulating
infants biology
- Parents regulate relationships but also when it comes to the task of theory of mind and
accuracy at reading other ppl, that the relationship provides a de-coupling (way to
create a source of regulation in how you may change your view in a given situation)
between your own reactions and the circumstances that elicit those feelings
E.g. Still-face procedure
Parent ignores the child then doesn’t the child still has that feeling
Review (Final) Cumulative
- Chapter 1
- Chapter 2*: a lot of methodology; have to be able to come up with reasonable designs --
. Picks things that will answer questions to write about in a n open form; how to design
a study
- Chapter 3-4,
- Chapter 5*
- Ape genius included
- Chapter 6-8
- Chapter 10-12
- Chapter 13* (policy; extra credit question)
- Chapter 14* (read chapter 14 with chapter 1)
- Chapter 3
Biological preparedness
Biological rhythms predict our social rhythms and acquisition of biological skills
are learned through social interactions
Biological rhythms help us deal with learning how to become coordinated; the
social dance of human interaction and exact timing of events
Because biological rhythms operate on a clock they teach social rhythms work on
a clock to help ppl to coordinate complex behaviours
Prenatally a lot of learning going on
Auditory preparedness for social interaction well developed before birth
o Prefer motheress (baby talk)
o Prefer high pitch and exaggerated
o Contours
o Become attuned to native language by 9 months
o There is a critical period when babies show preferences and seems to be
involved with their rapid acquisition
Social dev: Dyadic regulation
Other directed regulatory behaviour
o The caretaker reads the infants affective displays and uses the info to
facilitate the infant’s goal-directed activities. The caregiver helps the
infants emotional state
Self-directed regulatory behaviour
o A coping behaviour used by an infant to shift away from a disturbing
event and substitute a negative for a positive stimulus --, looking away,
thumb sucking, self-stimulations/comforting
Don’t want to have one dominating the other Should have both (balanced
- Chapter 4
Attachment theory
Attachment and the brain
Attachment x genes self-regulation
Biological function of attachment behaviour
Environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA)
o Physical proximity increases survival, feeding, learning about the
environment, social interaction
o A primary biological adaptation
Bowlby Attachment as a regulatory behaviour
What activates attachment behaviour
o Greater distance form caregiver
o Stress of frightening stimuli
o Fatigue and illness
What deactivates attachment behaviour
o Physical proximity
o Caregiver as safe haven (comfort + support)
Internal working model (IWM)