PSYC21H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Beyond Recognition, Emotion Classification, Negative Affectivity

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC21H3
Professor
Week 5 readings
Chapter 5: Emotions Thoughts about Feelings
What are emotions?
- Primary emotion: fear, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness and interest which emerge early in
life and do not require introspection or self-reflection
- Secondary or self-conscious emotions: pride, shame, guilt, jealousy, embarrassment and
empathy, which emerge in the second year of life and depend on a sense of self and the
awareness of other ppls reactions
Why are emotions important?
- Way in which children let others know how they feel
- Emotions linked to children’s social success emotions linked to children’s mental and
physical health
Perspectives on emotional development
- Biological perspective
Emotional expressions are innate and universal, rooted in human evolution and
based on anatomical structures
Basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust are the
same in different cultures universal
All infants begin to smile at 46 week post-conception
Left hemisphere of the brain = emotion of joy
Right hemisphere = expression of fear
- Learning perspective
When parents respond to their infant’s smiles it encourages the infant to smile more
responding with positive stimulation
Learning experiences can reinforce children’s fear response
- Functional perspective
Purpose of emotions is to help ppl achieve their social and survival goals, such as
making a new friend or staying out of danger
Ways that emotions function:
1. One way emotions function is that they impel children toward their goals
2. Emotional signals provide feedback that guides other ppls behaviour
3. Memories of past emotions shape how ppl respond to new situations
Emotions help children achieve their goals, establish and maintain social
relationships and adapt to their environment
Development of emotions
- Coding system for infant emotional expressions is the Maximally Discriminative Facial
Movement (Max)
- Primary emotions
Joy
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Reflex smile: a upturned moth seen in the newborn that is usually spontaneous
and appears to depend on some internal stimulus rather than on something
external such another person’s behaviour
These smiles have adaptive value for the infant by ensuring caregiver attention
and stimulation
Means of communication and an aid for survival
Social smiles: upturned mouth in response to a human face or voice, which first
occurs when the infant is about 2 months old
By the time babies are 3 months they smile more to familiar faces rather than
unfamiliar smiling starts to signal pleasure rather than emotional arousal
Duchenne smiles: smile reflecting genuine pleasure, shown in crinkles around
the eyes as well as an upturned mouth usually reserved for mothers
How much they smile depend on the social responsiveness of their environment
Differences in smiling related to gender girls smile more than boys which
continues into adulthood
Expression of emotion change with age
Study: auditory stimuli showed few laughs at any age; tactile stimuli elicited
substantial amount of laughter, but only at -9 months; visual and social stimuli
elicited more laughter overall and the likelihood of this laughter increased with
age
Fear
2 phases in the emergence of this emotion:
1. 3-7 months, infants develop wariness, exhibited when encountering events
they do not understand not afraid at first when confronted and by 6
months infants react to strangers with a sober expression and perhaps a bit
of distress
2. 7-9 months, where infants show true fear an immediate negative reaction
to an event or person they don’t recognize and don’t like
Stranger distress or fear of strangers: a negative emotional reaction to unfamiliar
emerges in infants around the age of 9 months
Baby’s reaction depends on how parents react to a stranger
Infants use parents as a social referencing point when they find themselves in
unfamiliar situations
Social referencing: process of reading emotional cues in others to help
determine how to act in an uncertain situation
Affects of infants to strangers is the degree to which the situation allows the
infant some control over the strangers behaviour
Common fears in different cultures: fear of separation from the mother
separation anxiety: fear of being apart from a familiar caregiver which typically
peaks at 15 months of age
Anger
Newborns first negative emotions is startle, disgust and distress
Not until 2-3months infant display anger
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Document Summary

Primary emotion: fear, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness and interest which emerge early in life and do not require introspection or self-reflection. Secondary or self-conscious emotions: pride, shame, guilt, jealousy, embarrassment and empathy, which emerge in the second year of life and depend on a sense of self and the awareness of other ppls reactions. Way in which children let others know how they feel. Emotions linked to children"s social success emotions linked to children"s mental and physical health. Emotional expressions are innate and universal, rooted in human evolution and based on anatomical structures. Basic emotions such as happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust are the same in different cultures universal. All infants begin to smile at 46 week post-conception. Left hemisphere of the brain = emotion of joy. When parents respond to their infant"s smiles it encourages the infant to smile more. Learning experiences can reinforce children"s fear response.

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