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Lecture 12

PSYC23H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Epigenetics, Amygdala, Gene Therapy

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David Haley

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- CAVE AND PERCEPTION: is the world really how we think it is?
-imitation allows us to survive and thirve in situations evolutionary push
Autistic lack of social imitation due to neuronal disruptions
-fathers 5 times more likely to pass genes for autism due to spontaneous generations
- risk is higher in dads over 40 for spreading autism
- more risk for boys
- environment affects risk for autism by affecting the genome and increasing the risk for these
spontaneous mutations
- not enough research on mirror neurons to determine more on mirror neurons
- there is an idea of construction to memory, constantly changing memories and we have a lot of bias by
which we make memorys (filter out our experiences if we already know something)
- every time we access a memory, we change it slightly
- access to memory is different each time we call it up, so it changes the memory
When amygdala fired up a lot, it can form associations that can form memories fearful memries best
model we have of how models are formed
SM had no amygdala
- showed her movies, she was never scared of the scary movies
- reconsolidation: updating memories
- after person learned association, performed extinction right away ssee shape without the shock, and
then brought them back and found that they did not have fearful response
- critical time for extinction only works right away after you have learned to make this association if
did it after the time, the people still were scared
- after reconciliation, there is a new plastic consolidation time that occurs
- moment you call it up, there isa moment that the memory is instable/plasticity occurs any time after
you recall the memory
- when you actively reconcolidate (call up a memory), it can be reconsolidating and mess with
it(influence the memory and change it)
- people that get terrified, only have fear response when they think of bad time, they cant extinguish it,
and they do not reconsolidate with new memories, do not change it, and thus the memory will always
be freightening and negative relive the whole thing in entirety (terrified)
- can construct memories as we wish, don’t just replay memories (primitive survival)
Epigenetics explains basic evolutionary and developmental processes
- over time, get more genes that have different methylations on them
- fewer receptors on hippocampus if not licked as much, may be adaptive in a stressful environment
would think it would be bad because have less negative feedback, but for learning, having fewer
receptors mean you wont get as stressed out despite many stressors in environment
- in non stressful environment, wouldn’t be adaptive because wouldn’t pick as much from environment
and wont enhance memory
- methylation changes how genes are expressed, genes can also get mutated making you better off
both are important
- if don’t have mutation, wont matter what environment you are in, if you have it, then if you are in a
bad environment, may be worse off
(genetic vulnerability in bad environment, genetic enhancement in good environment)
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