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Lecture 8

PSYC23H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Brendan Fowler, Circadian Rhythm, The Wrong PeoplePremium

11 pages73 viewsFall 2016

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC23H3
Professor
David Haley
Lecture
8

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LECT 8 CHILD ABUSE
Weekly assignments
- child abuse
o effects
o interventions (therapy)
o what constitutes child abuse?
Religion?
Does it only have to be done by parents?
- V little about the causes and effects of child abuse
o Does it pass on biologically & behaviorally thru generations?
o Mental health; as a effect & risk factor
- What are the proximal mechanisms in the indiv? (right when they are about
to do it)
o Physiological?
o Psychological?
1/3 of Canadians have suffered child abuse
- most common form exposure to intimate partner violence
o physical (spank, slapping)
- even if you have one type of child abuse, there is a double/triple greater
chance of developing a mental illness
o 2 types (child abuse & exposure to intimate partner violence)
2x likely to commit suicide
Childhood Abuse, Suicide, and Epigenetics
- STUDY (McGowan)
o Ppl who end up committing suicide & have been sexually abused as a
child…
Down-regulation of GR receptors
Critical for providing (-) feedback to HPA axis
w/o GR receptors, you don’t have (-) feedback occurring
efficiently
o HPA turns on all the time to everyday stressors
o How much methylation, epigenetic marks are at the genetic sites for
GR receptors
Tremendous amount of methylation
This infl how the GR receptors are turned off
Increase in methylation= putting duck tape on a victim
- Experience of abuse of a child contributes to the stress system, which
explains why they had suicidal beh
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Is Child Abuse A Psychological Or Physical Problem
Scars That Wont Heal: The Neurobiology of Child Abuse (Teicher, 2002)
Limbic irritability
Brain development
Reduction in left hippocampus (adults but not adolescents)
Reduction in left amygdala (adults and adolescents)
Connectivity
Neurochemical effects
Stress effects are gradual
Alterations in GABA receptors in amygdala
Microstructues
EEG abnormalities
Abnormally high EEG coherence limited development
More irritable amygdala
- hard to regulate emotion
- gross structural differences
- hemispheres develop where they are out of sync w each other
abnormal brain activity
- too much EEG happening all at once
o the general rhythm to brain activity is gone
The Silent Epidemic of Child Sexual Abuse
- vast epidemic
o not reported as much as it occurs
- 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys are sexually assaulted before age 18
- Over 90% by someone they already know
o family members
o friends
o babysitters
o coaches, etc.
- Only 1 in 10 sexually abused children tell someone
Erin Merryn
- laws to punish sex offenders
- educated ppl about sexual abuse
o made ppl more aware
Should Children in School Learn about Child Abuse?
- some countries do this
- some say kids are too young to know/learn about it
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- some parents may not identify w being a parent
o get more frustrated
- evolutionary story about step parents
o Cinderella theory
Step-parents are the biggest cooperates of child murder
More likely to kill child than biological parent
They have less to invest; its not their genetic offspring
1 natural & 1 step parent
child is 0-2 5x greater chance of suffering child abuse
than if you had 2 natural parents
1 natural & 1 step parent
0-2 more than 5x greater chance of being murdered
than if you had 2 natural parents
- could this be bc the kid is being more reactive to the step parent
o more difficult w step-parent
Child Abuse, Antisocial Beh, Genetics
- are the childs genes affecting how influenced they are by the abuse?
Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA)
Gene that codes for an enzyme that metabolizes neurotransmitters
(dopamine, seratonin, and epinephrine) and renders them inactive
Genetic deficiencies in this gene and low activity in MAOA linked to
aggression in mice and men
MAOA
Feedback mechanism for our neurotransmitters
Low more aggression
Hypothesis:
Children with polymorphism in MAOA gene will have lower MAOA
activity and be greatly affected by child abuse
Ppl who have a mutation of the gene, which leads them to have
less MAOA expressed; will they be greatly affected by child
abuse than those w/o this mutation?
- RESULTS
o Low MAOA (mutation)
Child abuse greatest antisocial beh
No abuse almost acts as a protective factor; lowest amount
of antisocial beh
MAOA gene acts in 2 diff ways depending on the
context!!!
o No mutation
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