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Lecture 10

PSYC23H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Debt, Stroop Effect

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David Haley

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PSYC23: Developmental Psychobiology Clara Rebello
PSYC23 Lecture 10: Sleep, Stress, and Behaviour Problems
Reseah foud little paet esposieess to ifat’s eleated otisol as eatio to stessful
stiuli like paet’s still fae
Often, sleep problems in kids is comorbid with behavioural problems
Important to look into how sleep and stress physiology link to psychopathology
Cry It Out (CIO)
o Is it ok for parents to let infants cry it out?
How to intervene with a child to stop them from crying
5-step cognitive technique guaranteed to calm a baby
Shushing Louder than a vacuum cleaner in your ears
Swaddling Wrap arms downward
Swinging movement
Side/Stomach position
Crying is reflexive
Big question on this area regarding causation
o Sleep regulates stress, or
o Stress regulates sleep, or
o Sleep regulates behaviour (or risk for psychopathology), or
o Behaviour regulates sleep?
Trying to find the answer to the above question can help prevent children from developing
profound psychopathology
Important themes to consider
o Early relationship experiences and biology (such as sleep) influence how we learn to
regulate stress across the life span
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PSYC23: Developmental Psychobiology Clara Rebello
o People find many compensatory and/or alternative ways to cope and regulate stress
(addictions, psychopathology, etc.)
o People may learn to cope with fear or stress by taking it out on themselves or others
o Having a better understanding of what psychopathology is and what behaviours are
considered psychopathological can help with learning to cope with stress
Osee hilde’s etealizig poles ad t to udestad thei itealizig poles
before considering ways they can regulate stress
Disorganized attachment
o These results justify the diagram on
the right
o Behavior problems (externalizing and
internalizing symptoms)
May be more on the
externalizing scale than on
the internalizing scale
o 70% of children reported to be
aggressive by their teachers
o Psychopathology
o But do they differ in their sleep?
Are these kids scared of their
Maybe not going to sleep as easily due to not feeling safe
Sleep and Attachment Study (Pennestri et al., 2015)
o Age: 6, 12, 24, and 36 months
o Disorganized vs. secure and ambivalent
Later bedtimes
Less sleep duration Sleep is interrupted more frequently
Shorter period of interrupted sleep
More signaling during the night Cry for their parents more; The a’t go to
sleep o thei o aoe; Hae’t et deeloped a sleep stateg
o Arousal disorders: Inability to fully arouse from slow-way sleep (SWS) (i.e., states of
confusion & lower cerebral reactivity)
Body is acting biologically as if it’s aake
o Examples: Nightmares, night terrors, somnambulism, enuresis
o Does this cause someone to have a mental health problem, or is this the symptom of a
mental health problem?
o Most children do show some night wakings
Very normal They should eventually grow out of it
We just do’t ko if it ill lead to a futue sleep disode o if it ill pass
Sleep patterns in an early school-aged child
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PSYC23: Developmental Psychobiology Clara Rebello
o Stages of sleep
o Helps see the different functions each stage has in arousal level
o Halfway through the night or later, you can start seeing intervals of REM sleep
o REM interval gradually increases
Cortisol and sleep
o Cortisol inhibits greatly during sleep
o During each REM sleep interval, blood cortisol levels sky rocket
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