PSYC23-lec 03.docx

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11 Apr 2012
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Low birth weight, increased diabetes- Barker hypothesis
There is a future destiny to the health of everyone of us
Tested unborn babies
Experiment put children in unusual situation- experiments acted like greedy children with
- Some react emotionally- heart rate slows
- Core features of temperament- how they act and recover
- In adults they are more refined
- Fetus startle- some babies startle so much than other babies- do not have contact
with mother, mother is not needed
- Even one month before birth, you can see distinctive features about personality
- Moms have to accept good and bad of the child
- At the time you are born, parts of your personality can be determined
- Early experiences have lasting outcomes
- Methodological issues- cannot test humans
- Dutch family- poor nutrition- is prenatal period important or not?
- Sometimes history creates experiments
- Holland- 1944- hardly any food available
Heart disease, breast cancer, diabetes- babies who were exposed to this
Major impact on 12 weeks of pregnancy
There are some epigenetic mechanisms involved
Traces of Dutch hunger in genetic material
Very plastic- early experiences affect the later outcomes
Epigenetic marks change the way DNA behaves- affects gene expression
Its pre-determined and you can reverse it- even dieting can influence the DNA
Learning to learn
Genetically create through breeding
In terms of learning, it depends on how motivated they are- different SES
If you get people with bright eyed, light dyed- familiar to a task- habituate- then you
find the differences go away
Complexity dissonance theory
Our environment influences how we approach problems
Stimulatory experience more opportunity to complex motor tasks
It should follow a rhythm but some complex parts should pop up
Not simply motivation or IQ but the psychological complexity that you develop to
approach problems
Monkeys raised in 3 different environments- no mother, mother in a lab, raised in a
wild (most stimulating)
- 3 different types of toys in the environment- boring toy, t-shaped bar that can
move in couple of directions, shape that is flexible
- Those is raised in deprivation hang out with boring toy and those raised in lab
played with t-shaped and those raised in wild played with flexible toy
- They are equally motivated but it is what they are customized to
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Focused on leaves- a leaf can turn into another leaf or flower
Same fundamental structure can turn into the same thing or another
It depends on the condition- more nutrients or low nutrients
In development we have these undifferentiated terms that turn into the same or
Stockholm syndrome
Why we combine so easily?
People thought of it as a defence mechanism- bond to the person killed
Why do we sometimes become emotionally attached to the wrong people?
Harry harlow- given some nasty stimulation when with they surrogate mother- the
monkey will not move
Any mother in a storm
Evolution wants to make sure that the infant is in close proximity with parent
Baby rats don’t have vision, so rely on the odour of mom- it is so important that baby
smells the mother, orient and reaches her
When given shock, can we teach them to get away from the smell?
Induce fear response- they don’t care, no negative association to any smell
They cannot learn to get away from the smell potentially to the mother
Why not leave abusive mother or bad relationships? Atleast in the early stage there is
an evolutionary mechanism that forces to keep you with them
Stress hormone Switche fear and approach behaviours
Measure cortisol on the amygdale
Cortisol doesn’t go up- they don’t form association with the shock and odour
Function of the mother
First 10 days you are born, you are blind- after you get older maybe adolescence you
learn and may secrete cortisol when you learn the shock
The presence of their actual mother- determines whether they secrete gluccocoticoids
When mother was present- no glu
When you put mom in shock odour- no cortisol in old rats
Social vocalizations can release oxytocin in humans?
Place girls in stressful situation- prepare a speech for interview and subtracting
backwards- really painful where room of people shout- raise stress hormones
Put the girls into 3 diff groups-how fast you recover
Given mom, talk with phone on mom, watch tv show
The ones that got reunited- oxytocin high and cortisol lowered
Phone with mom- oxytocin elevation and cortisol lowered
Tv show- no increase in oxytocin and cortisol stayed the same
Oxytocin generally inversely related to cortisol level
Maybe helps deal with caregiving in some animals- like birds
In mammals- it is the most important survival mechanism
Why do they differ in monagomous when they have same genes?- due to different
environmenta conditions- voles
Montale vole- non-monogamy- highly populated env- move from one mate to
another- friendly with strangers- low in oxytocin
Praire vole- monagomous- predators can easily target them- when you meet a mate,
you are not picky- being with that mate helps for survival- protecting nest- have a lot
of oxytocin
Partner preference Test
Cage with partner or with a stranger- how much time the vole spends with the partner
and stranger
Praire vole spends majority of time with partner and not rude with stranger and some
time alone
Montane mole- no differentiation in the time they spend with partner and stranger
and more time alone
Open oxytocin receptors- different expression for the voles
Neurobiology of affiliation and attachment: oxytocin
It might be reprogrammed in the brain to help in mating
High level- you can remember the face of you friends
Lower you blood pressure, increase your social behaviour
Just touching can stimulate the release of oxytocin
Lowering the stress hormones in baby by just touching them