PSYC23H3S – lecture 2 – 01-19-12
Form a working glossary of key terms and concepts
Key questions and debates going overtime
We don`t need to memorize the names and people, time point, etc; identify that there is a debate
One of the big debates
This notion of nature and nurture, we are asking that question today. And we are trying to flesh
out why that`s relevant in our lives, what kind of questions fall from it? How do we develop to who we
are right now; nature or nurture? Before we saw outside of mother’s womb, is that what we see now?
Are we just a product of the latest fads and fashions of our times and social world? If it’s not extreme,
what is a more moderate position and we will drive that point thru different data sets today. We will
look at different species. Considering what some of the studies have shown that have peeled us away
from one of the extreme sides of the debate. We will assert the extremes of the debate and then see
some data to suggest differences otherwise. We will go on to understand mechanisms that influences
who we are and are notions of nature and nurture.
SES health gradient and health correlation
I said it’s the grandfather of all associations of trying to figure out who we are and determining
our social status. We’re looking at how much adversity at the global level somehow goes toward the
cells in our bodies and in most developmental systems and outcomes.
The difference between column 1 and 5 is 7 years. An extra seven years is extremely significant.
No one wants to lose that because of their educational and financial disadvantage. Women live longer.
So this is the main story and the problem is that these are averages. When you look closely at a given
population there are exceptions. If there’s something else going on, subgroups of people; what kinds of
schools, neighbourhoods, etc. things get more interesting. It’s your local subjective environment,
thoughts in your head that can constitute significant differences. We focus on the significance of early
They are a nice species, unfortunately not many left – 600 in existence. They are very big. 200 kg
450 lbs or so; these guys are heavy. They are friendly and very calm. They wander around in nice little
(Touched by a wild mountain gorilla)
Big males are called silverbacks. In a moment they will gather around a human and you’ll be able
to see the papa protect the little kids. They hide behind the cameraman. It grooms John’s hair. They
seem particularly amazed by John’s hair, black shirt etc.
It’s the interaction with humans that are kind of neat. You can get a unique sense of them as
opposed to them being in their natural habitats. They have papas, mamas, and junior and senior female,
young ones, 9-12.
Calmness can change depending on life circumstance.
Toronto zoo gorilla. He was abandoned when poachers killed his parents in the 70s, at a very
young age was taken to the Toronto Zoo and develops some normal functions. He’s not able to do many
things that we expect him to do, doesn’t have that many friends. He’s sired over conniving children. It
maybe a shotgun experience with him. When little ones run around, his papa play is swat and smack
unlike the usual dads. He kind of looks he suffers from some hangover or chronic migraine. He’s dealing
with these early life circumstances; taken away from the wild. He had relationship with own mom
before she was killed. It’s a big deal that in a zoo he’s able to reproduce because the usual ones don’t
know how. There are individual differences. There are some that do okay. You can find females for
example who are very playful
(Gorilla Displaying at the T.Zoo)
Playfulness reflect how good a caregiver you are. Zoos provide enrichment to get them
stimulated; more interested in the world, thus enhancing their caregiving authority.
Obituary – Samantha
When one of Charles longest mates, sam, died recently, he was in a really bad mood, showed a
lot of sadness. Charles isn’t the nicest person. It’s interesting that he forms such strong emotional
attachment. He’s protective. He’s fulfilling some of his obligations for monkey kind in terms of
Harry F. Harlow
We are going to see what Harlow did in order to get at this question about why monkeys love
mom; why we love our parents. Start in extreme position of 500 yo debates – innate or socially learned.
Predominant assumption for harlow is that it was learned –psychoanalysts and behaviourists. Is it
natural to be afraid of rats or snakes? How about our development of narcotic symptoms? He thought
we could train our kids to fear of something. Albert (child) brought to lab. He would be exposed to cute
rabbits, actual rats. He didn’t care. But he would have a conditioning, scary noise in BG, startled. Such a
noise became associated with the rabbit; object of terror. Using that mechanism, they thought that
explain why we love. We associate the food (breast) we get from mom, associate the satisfaction to