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PSYC31H3 Lecture Notes - Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Neuropsychology, Mental Event

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Konstantine Zakzanis

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Chapter 15 Clinical Neuropsychology
-Conceptual activities typically involve:
1. Intact system to organize perceptions
2. Well-stocked and readily store of remembered learned material
3. Intact cortical and subcortical interconnections and interaction patterns that underlie thought
4. Capacity to process two or more mental event at a time
5. A response modality sufficiently integrated with central cortical activity to transform conceptual
experiences into behaviour
6. Proper functioning feedback system for continuous monitoring and modulation of output
-it is not unusual to fund executive and conceptual/reasoning deficits occurring together
-concrete thinking is one of the most common signs of impaired conceptual functions
-usually appears as an inability to think in useful generalizations, at the level of ideas, or about
persons, situations, events not immediately present
Concept Formation
-some patients do poorly on virtually all tests of abstract thinking, regardless of mode of presentation or
channel of response
-patients with mild neuropsychological defects may not engage in concrete thinking generally, but may
show deficits on test that test specific aspect of concept formation and reasoning
-concrete thinking takes different forms with different patients, and varies in its effect on mental
efficiency with the type of task
Word Usage Tests
-call for abstract comparisons between two or more words, and provide a sensitive measure of concrete
-word usage is very dependent upon the integrity of the patient’s communication system and level of
verbal skills. The patient’s verbal skill level must always be taken into account
-difficult items indicate cognitive dysfunction in bright and well educated adults
-subject must explain what each pair of concepts has in common
-concepts range in difficulty from (orange-banana) to (friend-enemy)
-abstract generalizations get a score of two points whereas, specific and concrete responses get a score
of one point
-age related decline beginning at age 70
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