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Lecture 4

PSYC31H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: J.Lo By Jennifer Lopez, North American Racing Team, Neuropsychology

Course Code
Konstantine Zakzanis

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PSYC31: Lecture 4
February 1, 2018 Rationale of Deficit Measurement Ch. 4
Comparison Standards for Deficit Measurement
Last week: the behavioural geography of the brain
This week: the rationale of deficit measurement
Comparison Standards for Deficit Measurement:
The concept of behavioral deficit presupposes some ideal, normal, or prior level of
futioig agaist hih the patiet’s perforae a e easured.
E.g., digit span 7 +/- 2
-abnormal test, digit scan we did on homer last class, it is a measure of working memory
measure where given number and say the numbers back in the order in which I say them
- average, normal distribution is: 6-7
-normal distribution (know skewness)
-content of working memory impairment
- compare your score to population average
This level, the comparison standard, may be normative derived from an:
o 1.Appropriate (normative population)
o . Idiidual deried fro the patiet’s histor or preset characteristics),
depending on the patient, the behavior being evaluated, and the assessment
What characteristics do you think are important to consider if the comparison standard
is derived from the population???
o exam question: performance on digits scan, comparing to population average:
fair comparison characteristics: age, gender, level of education, linguistic,
culture (Hispanic norms)
- normative, is collective ability to do well/bad on the test
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-limitation of comparing your score to the score of the rest of the lass eaple: do’t takig
into account the unique individual history, premorbid characteristics (population level)
-use comparison standards at population and individual level
-good norms are stratified by age
-good tests stratified by age and education; really good test stratified by age, education and
Assessment of cognitive function uses both normative and individual comparison
standards for measuring deficit, as appropriate for the function or activity being
examined and the purpose of the examination.
Be aware of judgmental biases when estimating pre-orid ailities….
o Can you think of any that you are willing to admit to????
o M eaple…
-h ou’re doig this, e aare of judgetal as he judgig preorid functions?
-what factors may bias your view of the patient before injury (pre-morbid abilities): race,
gender, cultural, personality
-bias can work in both ways: good and bad
Normative Comparison Standards:
The Population Average
o The normative comparison standard may be an average or middle (median)
For adults, the normative standard, or norm, for many measurable psychological
functions and characteristics is a score representing the average or median performance
of some more or less well-defined population stratified by important demographic:
age, education, gender
And it is stratified by important demographic characteristics can you think of any?
-norm = standardization
-keep in mind, most test you will see on homer, do they all come from the same author? no,
authors use different samples so the norms will be different from other various tests.
-pitfall of flexible batteries to evaluate patients
- need homogeneity of samples
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The Population Average:
Normal curve
- limit false positives
-digit span: 12 (+2 standard distribution) more than 2 below the SD, the mean is defined as
aoralit, hoeer, do’t assue its aoralit: prole ith defiig ad oparig is,
is it a deficit being 2 below the SD??? does’t take ito aout of idividual differences
-limitation of using the strict rule of 2 below the SD: individual difference
-commeasuring deficits at an individual level
-use population and individual norms
The overall distribution of performance tends to be skewed in the direction of abnormal
scores as a few persons in any randomly selected sample can be expected to perform
poorl, hile ature sees to set a upper liit o suh aspets of eor spa…
Digit Span
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