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PSYC35H3 Lecture Notes - Implicit-Association Test, Descriptive Knowledge, Demand Characteristics

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Marc A Fournier

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Stereotype and Attention
Valence attributes: evaluations(+ or -) , non valence are not associated with + or
Links between concepts are called associations
Attributes are networks of association concepts
The idea of spider web-concepts are related in the head but different in strength of association
Speed of concepts lighting up depends on strength
Self reports are limited to impression management, + demand characteristics(people answer what
they consciously think), self reports may or may not be accurate
Implicit assessment
oOpportunity to circumvent self reports
Explicit methods such as self reports are thoughts we have conscious access to, they can be
controllable and deliberate
Implicit processes are cognitive
declarative knowledge(found in explicit) and procedural (implicit) knowledge lead to access of
different types of knowledge
Self esteem, the more strength of association between you and good
Self esteem is the concept of self with valence
The stronger the association between concepts the stronger the self esteem
Self concept-association of self with non valence attributes(between self and non-evaluative
Attitude-evaluation of something out there in world, evaluative beliefs about things in the
world(i.e you think professors are good)
Sterotype(i.e you think all professors are intelligent)
In order to explain a lot of things you need a lot of complex theories, Greenwald was able to
integrate self and social psychology together(comprehensiveness achieved)
Associations are expected to differ in strength
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oThe stronger the association the more likely its going to trigger other related phenomena
Implicit association test- test difference in strength between different associations between
different concepts
In the card examples, within each association there is something that links them together(such as
colour or shape)
oAssociations of cards according to colour is easier because it is a common, simple task
oBut experiment 2 is harder for most people but for those who play Bridge have different
You can infer strength of association in cognitive network through the speed with which you are
able to sort concepts(the speed of which you can sort concepts implies the strength of association)
IAT-various cues(words related to target concept are shown and person has to sort them out)
oThis task is facilitated through the extent to which you associate good things with
oSelect cues that are or not relevant to you
oAnother task which involves evaluating objects as good or bad
oThen you combine both tasks together, either good/bad and you/not you
oThis is to see whether good is associated with your or not you
oIf reaction time for trail 3 is shorter than 5, it means the more you associate good with
oHopefully you should slow on trail 5 because there is less association between you and
bad(going to compare relative speed of #3 and # 5, the relative extend to which good is
related to you vs. not you)
oBy sorting things out we can benefit or hurt ourselves depending on how we associate
IAT was done to find implicit attitudes(maybe you associate good things with European(white)
and bad things with black people
oIAT is not perfect, its more mindful
oYou can prime people, make them more confident ETC
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