PSYC37H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: World Health Organization, Concurrent Validity, Predictive Validity

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20 Apr 2012
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Lecture 5- Feb 7, 2012
Psychological Assessment- Validity and Test Development
*It’s possible that a very simple equations might be on midterm
Validity: A Definition
A test is…
There are diff ways we can think of validity (i..e reliability ); just becase something is reliabile
doesn’t mean it’s valid
What were to happen if he got off a scale and stepped on a new scale, and it says 300
pounds
The types of decisions we make based on tests should be meaningful, useful, appropriate
You can consider it a unitary value
It’s not as easy as it seems
When you put the tests out there, other people will start using that to measure some things
(profs, other students, teachers, etc)
Test validity hinges upon the accumulation of research findings
For ex, transition from the third to the fourth edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
(WAIS)
You’re supposed to use the most clearly validated test out there
It’s appropriate to say that I’m going to keep using the WAIS 3 until I see that it’s ok to use
WAIS 4
Content Validity
What is the nature of the content in the actual testis it valid?
Determined by the degree to which the questions, tasks, or items on a test are representative of
the universe of behaviour the test was designed to sample
If you’re measuring depression, you should have a test with questions relating to
depression, anxiety, and different aspects that revolve around depression or are related to it
Achievement Test:
Norm-reference test: thousands have been tested
Hypothetical Example of Agreement Model of Content Validity for a 100-Item Test
87 items are universally accepted
Content Validty Coeffeicint
Content validity: Determined by the degree to which the
questions, tasks, or items on a test are
representative of the universe of behavior
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the test was designed to sample
Face Validity
A test has face validity if it looks valid to test users, examiners, and especially examinees
Does a test measure what it’s supposed to look like it’s measuring
Criterion-Related Validity
Criterion-related validity is demonstrated when a test is shown to be effective in estimating an
examinee’s performance on some outcome measure
Ex. World Health Organization Disability Scale (someone who reports high level disabiality on
this measure, they actually show high disability in real life ; others rate them as low-satisfaction
in life)
GPA in first year graduate school, could be due to the GRE not being relaibile, or that first year
GPA isn’t an indicator to a good criteria
Schedule of recent events: contamination of test (look at powerpoint yellow chart)
Major change in sleeping, eating habits, and social activities -> these are all criteria of
depression
Types of Criterion-Related Validity
Concurrent validity
Test scores and criterion information are obtained simultaneously
Predictive validity
Test scores are used to estimate outcomes to be measured at a later date
Ex. if I measure impusvility on my test, then I may find that people (undergraduates) later on
who go on to commit a violent crime, my test will predict who will go on to commit violence
-> basically, one thing I predict now, will happen later on
What about the GRE?
Doesn’t really predict much
Validity Coefficient and the Standard Error of the Estimate
The relationships between test scores criterion measures
Rxy
Margin of error
Those with a GRE scores of 80th percentile, that the GPA graudatie school might predict
at 3.7 and margin of error 3.5 3.9
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