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Lecture 7

PSYC37H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Diminished Responsibility, Psychopathology, Extraversion And Introversion

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Anthony Ruocco

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PSYC37- March 6, 2012
Origins of Psychological Testing
Phenomenology refers to someone’s immediate, personal, subjective experience of the world
Carl Rogers’ approach is letting the client themselves direct the psychotherapy session; a self-
psychologist; Q-technique is a procedure for studying changes in self-concept; works by
psychologist sitting at a table with a client with about 150 cards (describing the person) on the
table, and the client is supposed to sort them into piles (characteristic, uncharacteristic, neutral,
extremely characteristic, etc.); compare the results to a normative sample, or look at how
distribution changes over time;
Behavioural and Social Learning Theories
Applying techniques that we used to use on animals (dogs, mice) on humans; operant learning-
punishments and rewards; classical conditioning- reinforcement
Electric shocks sometimes used on mentally retarded people who are considered dangerous
(sexual deviants) to stop these behaviours
Learned helplessness- sometimes people feel they have no control over their destiny,
behaviour; Rotter- Internal-external scale of control;
Trait Conception of Personality
A trait is any “relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another”; traits are a
huge area of controversy: do we even have traits of personality?; one of the first people to talk
about traits to describe personality is Cattell; Surface traits are the broader level of traits; facets
are individual sub-traits, which Cattell called the Source traits;
Eysenck’s Trait-Dimensional Theory- bipolar scale means that there are two ends to the scale,
you can go from introverted to extraverted;
Five-Factor Model of Personality- “OCEAN”; Fundamental Lexical Hypothesis; if you take every
word that can describe personality from the dictionary, and rate these traits, then put them into
a huge database and factor analyze it, they derived these five factors; widely accepted model of
Criterion-Keyed Inventories
MMPI-2- 557 item, very long inventory that people are often required to complete as part of a
psychological assessment; ten different scales; Hs- concerned with bodily symptoms; D-
depressive symptoms; Hy- aware of problems and vulnerabilities, somebody who has a
convergent syndrome; Convergent V, high Hs, low D, high Hy;
MMPI was originally developed in 1945, with 557 questions; assesses psychopathology; this
instrument has been revised three times;
Demonstrate diminished capacity; Insanity defence; no such thing as diminished capacity in
Canada; in the MMPI, there is a scale designed to detect faking good (non-credible under-
reporting) or faking bad (non-credible over-reporting); L, F, K,- detect faking, known as validity
scales; the middle ten scales are known as the clinical scales, where higher scores detect clinical
psychopathology; F measures a variety of different forms of psychopathology, thus a psychiatric
patient will endorse some of those problems, but a faker will endorse a whole bunch of
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