Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UTSC (30,000)
Psychology (8,000)
PSYC39H3 (200)
Lecture

PSYC39H3 Lecture Notes - Impulsivity, Longitudinal Study, Battered Person Syndrome


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC39H3
Professor
David Nussbaum

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Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian Perspective Chapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 156
CHAPTER 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence
Behind Closed Doors:
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Distinguish between the different types of family violence.
2. Explain the ecological model of family violence.
3. Outline how social learning theory has been used to explain intimate violence.
4. Describe the effectiveness of treatment programs for intimate violence.
5. Identify the short- and long-term consequences of child abuse.
6. Identify the victim and perpetrator risk factors for elder
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Family violence can be classified into the following types: physical abuse, sexual
abuse, neglect, financial abuse, and emotional abuse. The prevalence rates of family
violence are difficult to estimate accurately since the abuse often occurs in private. In
addition, researchers do not agree on what should be included in the definition of
family violence. Researchers often study the prevalence and effects of specific types
of abuse.
The ecological model of family violence focuses on the relationship between multiple
levels of influence in understanding family violence, including individual, relationship,
community, and societal factors. Risk factors associated with each of these
levels have been identified for intimate violence, child abuse, and elder abuse.
The two prominent theories of intimate violence place emphasis on society versus
the individual. Patriarchal theory focuses on long-standing cultural beliefs and values
that support the male dominance of women. In contrast, social learning theory focuses
on the observational learning of new behaviours, different types of instigators, and
the regulators that increase or decrease the probability of intimate violence.
Typologies of male batterers have been proposed, with most identifying three main
types: family-only, generally violent/antisocial, and dysphoric/borderline. The two
most common treatments for male batterers are the Duluth model, which focuses on
power and control, and cognitive-behavioural treatments. Meta-analysis of male
batterer treatment programs have found no differences in the effectiveness across
treatment types and relatively small treatment effects.
The most common form of child abuse is neglect, although many children experience
multiple forms of abuse. Being abused or witnessing domestic violence results in a range
of short-term and long-term emotional, psychological, and behavioural consequences,
including an increased likelihood of the child abusing his or her own children.
Clinicians and researchers have paid relatively little attention to elder maltreatment.
With the increasing number of older people in Canada, there are concerns about the
prevalence of the abuse of older people. The most common perpetrators of elder

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Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian Perspective Chapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 157
abuse are the victim’s spouse or adult children. Because elders visit physicians
relatively frequently, primary care physicians are in a unique position to identify
maltreatment and to intervene. However, some physicians are reluctant to report
suspected elder maltreatment. Several screening instruments have been designed to
help professionals detect potential abuse.
LECTURE OUTLINE
1. Introduction:
Ideally, a family is a place where someone can feel loved, secure, and
safe.
Within some families, there is abuse, fear, and a lack of emotional bonds
that can lead to violence.
The occurrence and aftermath of this violence can have devastating short-
and long-term effects.
In some cases, children who experience abuse become abusers themselves
and the cycle passes from generation to generation.
it is not unusual that victims of abuse initially blame themselves.
Victims will often attempt to change their behaviour in order not to trigger
an abusive episode, but the abuse usually continues and even escalates.
Violence:
1. is the most prevalent form of violence in society.
2. is distinct from other types of violence since the victims and
perpetrators know each other and there is often an ongoing
relationship prior to, during, and after the violent episode.
3. in contrast to other forms of violence, some forms of family violence
are sanctioned (e.g., physical punishment of children) or considered
normal (e.g., fighting among siblings) and therefore not considered
criminal.
This chapter is divided into three parts - the first covers abuse within
intimate relationships; the second, child abuse; and the third discusses
elder abuse.
Major themes in each are the prevalence of the abuse, its causes, and
interventions.
Estimates of the magnitude of family violence vary depending on the
sample, type, and severity of violence and the method of data collection.
family violence is likely the most common form of criminal activity.
2. Violence within the Family: Background Issues:
Family violence is any violence occurring between members of a family.
For much of history, family violence had a quasi-legitimacy, due primarily
to cultural and religious attitudes that effectively placed women and
children in subservient roles within the family.
Only in the recent past have attitudes toward the issue changed.

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Psychology of Criminal Behaviour: A Canadian Perspective Chapter 8: Behind Closed Doors: Family Violence
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Canada Inc. 158
The women’s liberation movement and the growth of feminism led
women to question the long-standing acceptance of family violence.
Not until the 1980s did major changes take place in Canadian law dealing
with family violence.
Defining family violence is controversial.
no consensus exists for a definition, although most current definitions of
family violence include non-violent abuse (such as emotional or financial
abuse).
Differential rates of abuse can be the result of differences in who is
sampled and what is counted
When examining the frequency of violence, it is important to clarify the
distinction between prevalence and incidence.
Prevalence refers to the total number of people who have experienced
violence in a specified time period, whereas incidence is the number of
new cases identified or reported at a given point in time, usually one year.
When reporting on the estimates of family violence, many factors will
influence the prevalence and incidence figures.
Most researchers have focused on one specific type of family violence, but
there is evidence of considerable overlap in the risk factors and causes of
different forms.
Research is needed to integrate different theories, understand the impact of
multiple forms of violence on the victims, and focus on prevention of all
forms of violence.
Types of Violence
Some forms of abuse are more common than others - neglect is the most
common form of abuse in both children and the elderly.
Psychological abuse is often described by individuals as one of the most
hurtful types of abuse.
Financial abuse is most often studied in the context of elder abuse but can
also occur within intimate relationships.
Ecological Model of Family Violence
The ecological model of family violence provides a useful way to
conceptualize the interaction among factors related to violence in intimate
relationships, child abuse, and elder abuse.
the model focuses on the relationship between multiple levels of influence
in understanding family violence, including individual, relationship,
community, and societal factors.
At the individual level, biological, and personal history characteristics of
the abuser and victim need to be considered.
Such factors often include age, substance use, and history of abuse.
At the relationship level, a person’s closest social circle of peers, partners,
and family members may contribute to an increased risk.
Important factors may include level of stress or exposure to violence.
The community level incorporates places such as schools and
neighbourhoods that are associated with becoming a victim or perpetrator
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