PSYC39H3 Lecture Notes - Antisocial Personality Disorder, Differential Association, Meta-Analysis

59 views18 pages
Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC39H3
Professor
Chapter 1 11/7/2012 7:43:00 PM
Canadians believe more money should be spent on criminal justice
system
Rated Tv news as most important information source
Media very important, more than academia
Psychology is interested in intra individual differences (variation
in criminal conduct within an individual across time/situations) as
well as inter individual differences (variations in criminal
conduct between individuals)
Forensic Psychology any application of psychology to the legal
system
UK criminicological psychology, US/Can correctional psychology
FOCUS: understand assessment and management of
individuals who engage in criminal behaviour, , to follow
nature of the court
Macro level = understand crime as a large scale social
phenomenon (strain theory)
Micro level = importance of socialization and influence of
community, family, (differential association theory).. patterns of
individual behaviour (over time/situation --> thoughts/feelings)
Age crime data conceals wide range of offenders, doesn’t mention
that small percent of offenders maintain criminal activity into
adulthood --> crime desistance ( decrease in criminal activity
over time)
Psychology considers individual variation to account for
heterogeneity
Personal Interpersonal and Community reinforcement
Model(factors influencing criminality)
o Criminal behaviour reflects immediate situations
o Factors (inhibitors, stressors, temptations, facilitators)
combine to influence a decision to engage in criminal
behaviour
o Further influenced by attitudes, history, cost and rewards for
the crime, social supports
o Contributions of community, interpersonal relations, personal
relations and consequences
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 18 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Integrative + situational model, recognizes historical
and immediate factors
o COGNITIVE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Definition of Crime
o Different across cultures
o Diff behaviours viewed as criminal
o Factors used to define it: individuals motivation, opportunity,
politics, social convention and context
o 11 definitions (legal, moral, social, psychological)
o consistency across nations as what is criminal (esp robbery
and incest)
o Working definition by Bartol
Criminal behaviour refers to intentional behaviour
that violates a criminal code; intentional in that it
did not occur accidentally or without justification
of excuse
o Defining it is critical because it influences its prevalence
Determinants of Crime
o Historical and immediate (distal and proximal)
o Meta-analysis to find determinants (provides non biased
quantitive estimates of importance of results)
Meta analysis synthesizes info using stats, and uses one
average effect size for all studies combined, gives
studies with larger sample sizes more weight
Effect sizes give you magnitude of difference between
groups
Provides quantitive summary of a large body of
research, lets you convert info from one effect size
measure to another
Drawbacks: publication bias, may lack quality because
of poor quality studies included in analysis
First and Second Order correlates of Criminal conduct
o Central 8 Risk Factors of Criminal Behaviour (Major
Risk Factors)
Big 4
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 18 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
History of antisocial behaviour
(early/continuing involvement in antisocial acts in
variety of settings)
Antisocial personality pattern (adventurous
pleasure seeking, weak self control, relentlessly
aggressive)
Antisocial cognition (attitudes, values, beliefs
supportive of crime, cog. Emotional states of
anger, resentment and defiance)
Antisocial associates (close association with
criminal others, isolation from non criminal
others)
Moderate Risk factors
Family/Marital (low level of nurturance/supervision)
School/Work (low level of performance/satisfaction)
Leisure/Recreation (low level of involvement in
noncriminal leisure)
Substance Abuse
o Minor risk factors: series of meta analyses finding certain
correlates of crime in sociological theory that were considered
important in the past relatively unimportant now
Personal/emotional stress, mental disorder, physical
health problems, low IQ, social class, physical
conditioning
Cannot always explain criminal conduct
o Static risk factors (unchanging antisocial history),
Dynamic risk factors (can change substance abuse,
antisocial cognition)
o Goal is to understand and reduce criminal behaviour,
assessment and treatment should attend to correlating
factors
o Major risk factors criminogenic (empirically related to
criminal conduct, when reduced it leads to reductions in
future reoffending)
Impact of risk and need model
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 18 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Canadians believe more money should be spent on criminal justice system. Rated tv news as most important information source. Psychology is interested in intra individual differences (variation in criminal conduct within an individual across time/situations) as well as inter individual differences (variations in criminal conduct between individuals) Forensic psychology any application of psychology to the legal system. Uk criminicological psychology, us/can correctional psychology. Focus: understand assessment and management of individuals who engage in criminal behaviour, , to follow nature of the court. Macro level = understand crime as a large scale social phenomenon (strain theory) Micro level = importance of socialization and influence of community, family, (differential association theory) patterns of individual behaviour (over time/situation --> thoughts/feelings) Age crime data conceals wide range of offenders, doesn"t mention that small percent of offenders maintain criminal activity into adulthood --> crime desistance ( decrease in criminal activity over time) Psychology considers individual variation to account for heterogeneity.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.