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Lecture 4

PSYC39H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Complex Instruction Set Computing, Payment Card, Mortgage Fraud

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David Nussbaum

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Week #4- Lecture #4 Monday, October 05, 2015
Economic Crime
- different from violent crime
- sometimes similar; when mugger turns violent
Types of Economic Crime
White-collar crime
- business crime
- no victim present, if present --> robbery
- credit card fraud
Human trafficking
Drug trade
White-Collar Crime
Occupational crimes (e.g., tax evasion)
- deals w/ the individual employee
- do work on side and don’t report earning
- get caught can go to jail or get fined
Corporate crimes (e.g., price fixing)
- company involved in committing crime
- several things involved in price fixing: contusion(?)- getting tgt and discussing
& price fixing
- tax prices suspicion, but no evidence
White-Collar Offenders: Profile
Often male, white, highly educated, in upper management positions
Blickle, Schlegel, Fassbender, Klein (2006): more hedonistic, narcissistic tendencies, less
self-control, more conscientious
Collins and Schmidt (1993): lower integrity, irresponsibility, lack of dependability,
disregard of rules and social norms
S. 322 of the Criminal Code
Theft over $5000 is an indictable offence (max. penalty of 10 years of imprisonment)
- more serious, sentence of 2 years and up
- decision to have jury
Theft under $5000 is a hybrid offence
- under 2 years served in provincial institution, less serious crimes
- only trialed by judge, decide if offence is indictable of summary
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S. 380 of the Criminal Code
Types of fraud: identity fraud, advance fee fraud, online auction fraud, investment fraud,
counterfeit, corruption/bribery, etc.
Some theft may also be fraud (e.g., switching price tags in a store)
- misrepresent sth and gain through misrepresentation
Prostitution/Sex Trade
The following activities were/are illegal under the Criminal Code:
1. Procuring or living on the avails of prostitution
2. Owning, operating, occupying a brothel
3. All forms of public communication for the purpose of prostitution
4. Knowingly transporting another to a brothel
The pre-existing laws were challenged by sex workers who claimed that they deprived
them of their Charter Rights:
“The new bill does not respect our constitutional right to life, security and liberty,” sex
worker Émilie Laliberté told the committee.
Prostitution: The Male “Clients”
Xantidis & McCabe (2000):
1. Less likely to subscribe to a feminine sex-role orientation
2. Lower social-sexual effectiveness (Motivation: desire of intimacy)
- didn’t want relationship
3. Higher sensation-seeking behaviours (Motivation: desire for novelty and
Adolescent Prostitute: Profile
Often runaways
Sexually and physically abused
From homes with inter-parent violence, parental alcohol abuse, adolescent alcohol/drug
Low self-esteem
Human Trafficking
Recruitment, transportation, or harbouring of persons by means of threat, use of force, or
other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud or deceit for the purpose of exploitation
- before in Eastern Europe, life was very bleak, human traffickers told attractive
young women that they’ll bring them to the West and offer them jobs as teachers
and actresses
Estimates of trafficking into Canada: 800 (RCMP); 16,000 (NGOs)
Ss. 279.01 - 279.04 of the Criminal Code:
Prohibits human trafficking
Prohibits receiving a financial or other benefit for the purpose of trafficking
Prohibits destruction of victims’ travel/identity documents
- loss legal status and forced to work for human traffickers
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