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PSYC85H3 Lecture Notes - Orthogenesis, Religious Education, Normal Science

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Gerald Cupchik

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Chapter 13 The Developmental Point of View
Developmental psychology is assumed to be concerned with the study of children however
developmental psychology and child psychology is not the same thing
The concept of development is known as a gradual unfolding, other theorists believes
development to be synonymous to evolution and do not see it to be predetermined
Another meaning of development is “bringing out the latent capabilities” of a person
We will see that there are still more variations on the meaning of development
G. Stanley Hall
The Theory of Recapitulation
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny views humans development similar to that of evolution, a
concrete explain of this is when a embryo’s brain first resembles a fish then a reptile in the second
stage and so on
Hall’s Recapitulations
Hall’s version of the recapitulation principle was informed by a deeply religious sensibility, he
believed that the historical order in which religions emerged was indicative of their
developmental status
Hall and his co-workers gathered data on childhood activities through the use of questionnaires
Hall’s questionnaire approach was influential; the child study movement was the most popular
educational movement of the 1890’s this was because of the strong bond between psychologists
and teachers
Hall is known for drawing attention to adolescence as a period of storm and stress
Religious education had importance during adolescence as religious conversion led the child from
being egocentric to altruistic
Hall’s questionnaires established the first “normal science”
James Mark Baldwin
- Baldwin ran the John Hopkins psychology department until he was caught in a whore house and
was forced to resign. Which is when john Watson took over the Hopkins department
- Baldwin became a chair at UoftT
Psychology of Mental Development
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- Baldwin believed that the mind developed in the individual and was not always present in the
same form
- He did not believe in a rigid set of developmental laws and only very general norms could be
- Development occurs through a series of interactions between the child and the environment
- He created terms such as assimilation, refers to the tendency to respond to the environment in
familiar and adaptive ways
- Accommodation, in contrast, is the tendency to respond to the environment in the novel ways
that changing circumstances may require
- Imitation is the major way in which accommodation takes place. By imitating events in the
environment the organism develops new responses.
- Development involves both accommodation and imitation
Heinz Werner
His interests were in the psychology of art and was approached from a genetic point of view
Werner treated his students with unusual respect and treated women the same as men which was
new at the time
The Comparative Psychology of Mental development
His approach to development was comparative in the sense of examining the relation between
development processes in different cultures as well as different species
Werners approach was also organismic meaning that behavior must be considered in relation to
the context of total organismic activity
The orthogenetic principle is that development starts at a state of relative globality and lack of
differentiation to a state of increasing differentiation
Uniformity vs. multi-formity
the issue is whether behavior tends to converge from isolated units toward integrated wholes or
whether it becomes increasingly multiform
after examining behavior it is seen that it happens both ways
the ability of children to identify word meanings develops uniformly with age, however the
methods children use to arrive at a solution are quite varied and they demonstrate that the
processes underlying development are multi-form
process analysis examines the way in which a person arrives at a particular achievement, it is
more important to understand how a child arrives at an answer rather than the answer itself
Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Werner believed development had both a discontinuous and continuous properties
Emergence means that later forms of behavior have properties not found in earlier forms
Unilinearity versus Multilinearity
Werner recognized individual differences in development as specializations or aberrations
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