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Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Acute Stress Reaction, Abnormal Psychology, Conversion Disorder

4 pages695 viewsFall 2015

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC90H3
Professor
all
Chapter
Permachart

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Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal Psychology
INT R ODU C TIO N
• Abnormal psychology (psychopathology) is the branch of
medicine dealing with the scientific study of psychological disorders
affecting the way people think, feel, speak, and behave – thereby
keeping an individual from coping with the normal stresses of life
and can lead to blocking the ability to achieve personal goals
• Normal and abnormal behaviors differ widely between societies and
cultures throughout the world changing as customs, values, and
social conditions and customs change
Example: Disciplining children via severe beatings was considered
normal adult behavior for centuries; now, this is considered
abnormal behavior and cruel; in fact; much legislation has been
changed to protect children from such behavior
ASS E SSM E NT & DI A GNO S IS
Assessment is the evaluation and
measurement of possible psychological,
biological, and social factors that contribute
to an individual’s psychological disorder
• In diagnosis, the clinician attempts to
determine if the problem experienced by the
individual meets all the criteria of a particular
psychological disorder
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, Fourth Edition
• Multiaxial classification used to rate individuals
• Tests which identify location of dysfunctions
in the brains of individuals, affecting how they
think, feel, and act
• Certain tests indicate damage or dysfunction
in various parts of the brain, depending on
what is being measured
Tactile performance test: Blindfolded
individual must fit blocks into a board (first
using preferred hand, then the other hand)
• Measures motor-response speed to the
unfamiliar • Later, individual must draw the
board from memory, placing blocks in correct
location • Poor performance can indicate
damage or dysfunction in the right parietal lobe
of the brain
Category test: Individual is shown images that
suggest numbers between 1 and 4 • By pressing
a series of buttons, the individual is signaled as
to whether he/she chose the correct number
• Throughout the test, the individual must keep
track of rules for making correct choices • This
test measures problem-solving; poor
performance on the test can indicate damage
or dysfunction in the frontal lobes of the brain
Speech sounds perception test: Individual
listens to nonsense words and then tries to pick
words from a set of alternatives • Poor
performance can indicate damage or
dysfunction on the left hemisphere of the brain
• Measure changes in the body that occur due
to psychological events
Electroencephalogram (EEG): Electrodes are
placed on the individual’s head and chest to
measure electrical currents • Arousal to various
stimuli can be measured
Electrodermal responding: Formerly known as
GSR • Measures current that flows through the
skin when voltage is passed through the hand
• Increase in sweat gland activity occurs due to
emotional responses • Measures anxiety levels
• Interpersonal interview is styled as a conversation
• Interviewer pays attention to the actual
answers for individual questions and how they
were answered (or not answered)
• Structure can be determined by the interviewer
or a standard structure can be used
• Observation of behavior in real-life or artificially
created settings to directly assess difficulties
• Individuals can also observe their own behavior
through self-monitoring
• Checklists and rating scales can be used to
standardize the procedure and improve
reliability
• Care must be taken that the act of observing
does not cause an alteration in behavior (also
known as reactivity)
• Generates a score called an Intelligence
Quotient (IQ)
• It is only a good predictor of scholastic aptitude,
but it does have good reliability and validity
CON V ERS I ON
DIS O RDE R
• Usually a physical
disorder, such as blindness
or paralysis, pointing to
some sort of neurological
damage with no apparent
organic basis
• Generally affects sensory –
motor systems, but is not
restricted to these areas
• Usually develops before
adulthood, ending
quickly, then often
returning
• Sometimes difficult to
distinguish between real
symptoms and faking it
(malingering)
• Usually appears suddenly
in some sort of anxiety-
producing situation,
which allows the
individual to evade this
activity
• Individual may learn
(unconsciously) that
symptoms allow them to
escape unwanted
situations and thus these
symptoms may be
reinforced and persist
• Helping individual to
relive the traumatic event
(catharsis) can help
• Work with individual and
their support group
(family and friends) to
reduce reinforcing
consequences of the
symptoms
ABN O RMA L BE H AV I OR
• Emotional, cognitive, or behavioral
dysfunctions that are unexpected in
context
• These dysfunctions may cause personal
distress or impairment in personal
functioning
USUAL INDICATORS OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR
• Personal distress
• Irrationality
• Unexpected/unusual
behaviors or actions that
violates the norm
• Observer discomfort
(making people around
them uncomfortable)
• Disfunctionality
DSM IV
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
TEST EXAMPLES & PROCEDURES
PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT TESTS
TESTS, TECHNIQUES, & MEASURES
CLINICAL INTERVIEW
BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT
INTELLIGENCE TESTS
SYMPTOMS
CAUSES
TREATMENT
Example: The Schedule for Affective Disorders
and Schizophrenia (SCID)
© 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-786-21
TM
permacharts
w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m
2nd EDITION
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