Class Notes (979,597)
CA (576,787)
UTSC (34,409)
Psychology (8,287)
PSYC90H3 (7)
all (3)
Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Acute Stress Reaction, Abnormal Psychology, Conversion Disorder

4 Pages
1747 Views
Fall 2015
Likes

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC90H3
Professor
all
Chapter
Permachart

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal Psychology
INT R ODU C TIO N
• Abnormal psychology (psychopathology) is the branch of
medicine dealing with the scientific study of psychological disorders
affecting the way people think, feel, speak, and behave – thereby
keeping an individual from coping with the normal stresses of life
and can lead to blocking the ability to achieve personal goals
• Normal and abnormal behaviors differ widely between societies and
cultures throughout the world changing as customs, values, and
social conditions and customs change
Example: Disciplining children via severe beatings was considered
normal adult behavior for centuries; now, this is considered
abnormal behavior and cruel; in fact; much legislation has been
changed to protect children from such behavior
ASS E SSM E NT & DI A GNO S IS
Assessment is the evaluation and
measurement of possible psychological,
biological, and social factors that contribute
to an individual’s psychological disorder
• In diagnosis, the clinician attempts to
determine if the problem experienced by the
individual meets all the criteria of a particular
psychological disorder
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, Fourth Edition
• Multiaxial classification used to rate individuals
• Tests which identify location of dysfunctions
in the brains of individuals, affecting how they
think, feel, and act
• Certain tests indicate damage or dysfunction
in various parts of the brain, depending on
what is being measured
Tactile performance test: Blindfolded
individual must fit blocks into a board (first
using preferred hand, then the other hand)
• Measures motor-response speed to the
unfamiliar • Later, individual must draw the
board from memory, placing blocks in correct
location • Poor performance can indicate
damage or dysfunction in the right parietal lobe
of the brain
Category test: Individual is shown images that
suggest numbers between 1 and 4 • By pressing
a series of buttons, the individual is signaled as
to whether he/she chose the correct number
• Throughout the test, the individual must keep
track of rules for making correct choices • This
test measures problem-solving; poor
performance on the test can indicate damage
or dysfunction in the frontal lobes of the brain
Speech sounds perception test: Individual
listens to nonsense words and then tries to pick
words from a set of alternatives • Poor
performance can indicate damage or
dysfunction on the left hemisphere of the brain
• Measure changes in the body that occur due
to psychological events
Electroencephalogram (EEG): Electrodes are
placed on the individual’s head and chest to
measure electrical currents • Arousal to various
stimuli can be measured
Electrodermal responding: Formerly known as
GSR • Measures current that flows through the
skin when voltage is passed through the hand
• Increase in sweat gland activity occurs due to
emotional responses • Measures anxiety levels
• Interpersonal interview is styled as a conversation
• Interviewer pays attention to the actual
answers for individual questions and how they
were answered (or not answered)
• Structure can be determined by the interviewer
or a standard structure can be used
• Observation of behavior in real-life or artificially
created settings to directly assess difficulties
• Individuals can also observe their own behavior
through self-monitoring
• Checklists and rating scales can be used to
standardize the procedure and improve
reliability
• Care must be taken that the act of observing
does not cause an alteration in behavior (also
known as reactivity)
• Generates a score called an Intelligence
Quotient (IQ)
• It is only a good predictor of scholastic aptitude,
but it does have good reliability and validity
CON V ERS I ON
DIS O RDE R
• Usually a physical
disorder, such as blindness
or paralysis, pointing to
some sort of neurological
damage with no apparent
organic basis
• Generally affects sensory –
motor systems, but is not
restricted to these areas
• Usually develops before
adulthood, ending
quickly, then often
returning
• Sometimes difficult to
distinguish between real
symptoms and faking it
(malingering)
• Usually appears suddenly
in some sort of anxiety-
producing situation,
which allows the
individual to evade this
activity
• Individual may learn
(unconsciously) that
symptoms allow them to
escape unwanted
situations and thus these
symptoms may be
reinforced and persist
• Helping individual to
relive the traumatic event
(catharsis) can help
• Work with individual and
their support group
(family and friends) to
reduce reinforcing
consequences of the
symptoms
ABN O RMA L BE H AV I OR
• Emotional, cognitive, or behavioral
dysfunctions that are unexpected in
context
• These dysfunctions may cause personal
distress or impairment in personal
functioning
USUAL INDICATORS OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR
• Personal distress
• Irrationality
• Unexpected/unusual
behaviors or actions that
violates the norm
• Observer discomfort
(making people around
them uncomfortable)
• Disfunctionality
DSM IV
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
TEST EXAMPLES & PROCEDURES
PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT TESTS
TESTS, TECHNIQUES, & MEASURES
CLINICAL INTERVIEW
BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT
INTELLIGENCE TESTS
SYMPTOMS
CAUSES
TREATMENT
Example: The Schedule for Affective Disorders
and Schizophrenia (SCID)
© 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-786-21
TM
permacharts
w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m
2nd EDITION

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
permacharts MT Abnormal Psychology 2nd EDITION INTRODUCTION ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR • Abnormal psychology (psychopathology) is the branch of • Emotional, cognitive, or behavioral medicine dealing with the scientific study of psychological disorders dysfunctions that are unexpected in affecting the way people think, feel, speak, and behave – thereby context keeping an individual from coping with the normal stresses of life – • These dysfunctions may cause personal and can lead to blocking the ability to achieve personal goals distress or impairment in personal functioning • Normal and abnormal behaviors differ widely between societies and cultures throughout the world – changing as customs, values, and USUAL INDICATORS OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR social conditions and customs change • Personal distress • Observer discomfort Example: Disciplining children via severe beatings was considered • Irrationality (making people around normal adult behavior for centuries; now, this is considered • Unexpected/unusual them uncomfortable) abnormal behavior and cruel; in fact; much legislation has been • Disfunctionality changed to protect children from such behavior behaviors or actions that violates the norm CONVERSION ASSESSMENT & DIAGNOSIS • Assessment is the evaluation and DISORDER PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT TESTS measurement of possible psychological, • Measure changes in the body that occur due SYMPTOMS biological, and social factors that contribute to psychological events to an individual’s psychological disorder • Usually a physical • In diagnosis, the clinician attempts to disorder, such as blindness determine if the problem experienced by the TESTS, TECHNIQUES, & MEASURES or paralysis, pointing to individual meets all the criteria of a particular some sort of neurological psychological disorder Electroencephalogram (EEG): Electrodes are damage with no apparent placed on the individual’s head and chest to organic basis measure electrical currents • Arousal to various • Generally affects sensory – DSM IV stimuli can be measured motor systems, but is not • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Electrodermal responding: Formerly known as restricted to these areas Disorders, Fourth Edition GSR • Measures current that flows through the • Usually develops before • Multiaxial classification used to rate individualskin when voltage is passed through the hand adulthood, ending • Increase in sweat gland activity occurs due to quickly, then often NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS emotional responses • Measures anxiety levels returning • Sometimes difficult to • Tests which identify location of dysfunctions CLINICAL INTERVIEW distinguish between real in the brains of individuals, affecting how they think, feel, and act • Interpersonal interview is styled as a conversation symptoms and faking it • Certain tests indicate damage or dysfunction • Interviewer pays attention to the actual (malingering) in various parts of the brain, depending on answers for individual questions and how they what is being measured were answered (or not answered) CAUSES • Structure can be determined by the interviewer • Usually appears suddenly TEST EXAMPLES & PROCEDURES or a standard structure can be used in some sort of anxiety- Tactile performance test: Blindfolded producing situation, Example: The Schedule for Affective Disorders which allows the individual must fit blocks into a board (first and Schizophrenia (SCID) individual to evade this using preferred hand, then the other hand) activity • Measures motor-response speed to the unfamiliar • Later, individual must draw the BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT • Individual may learn board from memory, placing blocks in correct (unconsciously) that location • Poor performance can indicate • Observation of behavior in real-life or artificially symptoms allow them to damage or dysfunction in the right parietal lobe created settings to directly assess difficulties escape unwanted of the brain • Individuals can also observe their own behavior situations and thus these Category test: Individual is shown images that through self-monitoring symptoms may be suggest numbers between 1 and 4 • By pressing reinforced and persist • Checklists and rating scales can be used to a series of buttons, the individual is signaled as standardize the procedure and improve to whether he/she chose the correct number reliability TREATMENT • Throughout the test, the individual must keep • Care must be taken that the act of observing • Helping individual to track of rules for making correct choices • This does not cause an alteration in behavior (also test measures problem-solving; poor known as reactivity) relive the traumatic event performance on the test can indicate damage (catharsis) can help or dysfunction in the frontal lobes of the brain • Work with individual and Speech sounds perception test: Individual INTELLIGENCE TESTS their support group listens to nonsense words and then tries to pick • Generates a score called an Intelligence (family and friends) to reduce reinforcing words from a set of alternatives • Poor Quotient (IQ) consequences of the performance can indicate damage or • It is only a good predictor of scholastic aptitude, symptoms dysfunction on the left hemisphere of the brain but it does have good reliability and validity 1 ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-786-2 www.permacharts .com © 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM SCHIZOPHRENIA • Cognitive and emotional disturbances that can disrupt CAUSES perception and impede normal daily functions • There is some evidence for a biological predisposition to schizophrenia • Frontal lobes of the brain seem less active in those with schizophrenia SYMPTOMS • Disorganized speech and • Those with schizophrenia tend to have higher dopamine activity within Note: An affected individual the brain thoughts may only possess or exhibit • High stress seems to be a potential factor in relapse of schizophrenia • Delusions and hallucinations some symptoms • Lack of energy and disinterest in activity (avolition) TREATMENT • Loss of speech or content of speech (alogia) • Neuroleptic drugs are effective in treating the symptoms of • Inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia) schizophrenia • Token economies have shown to have some benefit in teaching • Inappropriate or no emotional responses (flat affect) schizophrenics some of the basic skills necessary for living independently SUBTYPES • Social skills are also taught so that an individual can relate to others in different settings • Various subtypes have been identified in which individuals have specific sets of symptoms PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS Catatonic Disturbed motor responses • Often echo • Various types of psychological tests meet requirements of reliability and the sounds and actions of others • validity to different degrees Individuals with this subtype are rare Disorganized Extreme disruptions in speech and PROJECTIVE TESTS behavior • Flat or inappropriate emotions • Delusions or hallucinations, when they are • Persons are shown ambiguous stimuli and must describe what they see • Assumption is that the individual projects their own personality onto the present, are disorganized • Individuals with stimuli, thus revealing unconscious thoughts within their descriptions this subtype tend to have chronic reactions, starting from a young age • Tests have low reliability and validity Paranoid Many delusions or hallucinations, usually involving persecution • Usually very few, if Rorschach Ten ambiguous inkblots are shown to an individual InkBlot Test • Their descriptions of what they see are interpreted any, of the other symptoms • Individuals by the therapist with this subtype have the best chance of recovery from their situation Thematic Individual must tell stories about a series of black Residual Individuals who have had at least one Apperception and white photos presented to them • Stories are Test (TAT) interpreted by the therapist episode of schizophrenia, but who no longer have any of the major symptoms, are classified with this subtype • These PERSONALITY INVENTORIES individuals typically maintain some of the less severe symptoms • Individual must complete a questionnaire about habits and tendencies • Tests are standardized, so they are generally reliable; however, they Undifferentiated Individuals who do not fit into any of the usually lack validity other subtypes are classified in this subtype • Most common type is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) or the revised version, MMPI-2 ANXIETY DISORDERS • Anxiety is a state of tension and negative effect POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) in which an individual anticipates some sort of DISORDER (PTSD) future danger or disaster • Individual is compelled to repeat the • Anxiety disorders come in various forms • PTSD is a severe emotional disorder that same act over and over, or is flooded follows a traumatic event with persistent thoughts or images • Event is usually relived through nightmares or GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER (GAD) vivid memories (flashbacks) Obsession: A persistent and intrusive • Victim usually experiences a numbing of thought, image, or urge • Common • Individual suffers from constant and emotional responses and avoidance of stimuli obsessions are aggressive or sexual uncontrollable worry about everything that may remind them of the traumatic event impulses, or the need to create order • Individual may experience sweating, pounding Compulsion: A thought or behavior • Other symptoms may be amnesia of the event performed because it is believed that heart, muscle tension, diarrhea, upset stomach, or increased arousal (such as hypervigilance, it will reduce the obsessions • difficulty sleeping, irritability, and chronic anxietproblems sleeping) Common compulsions are rituals • Effects are usually very long-lasting but cannot PANIC DISORDERS be diagnosed until a month after the event (as having to do with checking opposed to acute stress disorder, which (constantly • Sudden, overwhelming attacks of fear, making sure including a variety of other symptoms, such as usually happens immediately following the that the door is labored breathing, chest pains, dizziness, and event but symptoms often disappear much locked) or quicker) cleaning trembling • In some cases, acute stress disorder can (constantly • Attacks often last for a short time, but occur develop into PTSD washing frequently; may occur in response to specific hands) situations (cued) or at unexpected times PHOBIAS (uncued) • Intense, disproportionate fear of a specific event, object, or situation •
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit