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Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Operant Conditioning Chamber, Sigmund Freud, Classical Conditioning

4 pages380 viewsFall 2015

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC90H3
Professor
all
Chapter
Permachart

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College Psychology
College Psychology
CLA S S ICA L CON D I TIO N I NG
OPE R A NT C O NDI T I ONI N G
• Learning based on subject associating different events that predict
each other; based on reflexive behaviors and automatic responses
to stimuli
• Founded by Ivan Pavlov
• Pavlov is best known for his experiments which conditioned dogs
to salivate to an ambiguous stimulus
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING STEPS
• Example uses food (stimulus) and salivation (response)
• An unconditioned stimuli (UCS) that elicits an unconditioned
response (UCR) is paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS); it begins
to elicit the response on its own, which is referred to as a
conditioned response (CR)
UCS food (alone) = UCR salivation
CS tone (alone) = NOTHING
UCS + CS = UCR salivation
CS tone (alone) = CR salivation
• Learning to repeat rewarded
behavior or extinguish punished
behavior
• Founded by B.F. Skinner
• Extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and
discrimination work the same
way as in classical conditioning
• Primary reinforcers are innate;
secondary reinforcers are learned
TERMINOLOGY
Type Stimulus Probability of Response
Positive Reinforcer Presented Increases
Negative Reinforcer Withdrawn Increases
Punishment Presented Decreases
Schedule Behavior Reinforced
Continuous Following every desired response
Fixed-ratio Following set number of responses
Variable-ratio Following random number of responses
Fixed-interval On response, following a set time limit
Variable-interval On response, following a random time limit
Word Description
Premack’s Anything can be reinforced by something
Principle more preferred
Shaping Rewards guide behavior in small steps toward
more desired behavior
Skinner Box Soundproof box with a recordable device that
animal manipulates to release reinforcer
Successive The small steps in shaping approximations
MAI N PER S P ECT I V ES
TER M I NOL O G Y
Word Description
Discrimination Learning to distinguish between similar
stimuli and only responding to the CS
Extinction A decline in CR occurs after conditioning
when CS is repeated many times without
UCS
Generalization Tendency to respond not only to CS but to
similar stimuli
Spontaneous CR returns after extinction when CS
Recovery introduced again, a few hours later
REINFORCEMENT
RES E A RCH T ECH N I QUE S
• Description is the simplest form of research
• It involves observing and recording behavior
Type Description Constraints
Case Study Study individuals in Time consuming;
depth to find universal individual may be
truths about people atypical
Naturalistic- Observe and record Intrusions on
Observation behavior of subject in subject’s
natural environment environment
may alter natural
behavior
Survey Study many individuals Questions must
in less depth through be clear; relies on
subjects self-report representativeness
of behavior of subjects as well
as their honesty
• Most important research technique
• Manipulation of single variable while holding all others
constant
• Causation can be determined
• Usually done in lab; experiments may be deemed artificial
DESCRIPTION
EXPERIMENTATION
Behavioral Behavior is a result
of learned responses from environment
Biological Behavior is a result of innate, hereditary, and
physical processes created through
evolution
Cognitive Behavior depends on how we perceive
situation, and our abilities to process, store,
deal with, and retrieve information
Humanistic Behavior is freely chosen by individual, and
not shaped by uncontrollable forces
Psychoanalytic Behavior is a result of unconscious drives
(such as sexual, aggressive) and conflicts
often left unresolved in childhood
Social-cultural Behavior varies across situations and cultures
B.F. Skinner
COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-807-9 1© 1996-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
TM
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2nd EDITION
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