Class Notes (905,562)
CA (538,426)
UTSC (32,636)
Psychology (7,991)
PSYC90H3 (5)
all (3)
Reference Guide

College Psychology - Reference Guides

4 Pages
857 Views
Likes

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC90H3
Professor
all

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
College Psychology
College Psychology
CLA S S ICA L CON D I TIO N I NG
OPE R A NT C O NDI T I ONI N G
• Learning based on subject associating different events that predict
each other; based on reflexive behaviors and automatic responses
to stimuli
• Founded by Ivan Pavlov
• Pavlov is best known for his experiments which conditioned dogs
to salivate to an ambiguous stimulus
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING STEPS
• Example uses food (stimulus) and salivation (response)
• An unconditioned stimuli (UCS) that elicits an unconditioned
response (UCR) is paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS); it begins
to elicit the response on its own, which is referred to as a
conditioned response (CR)
UCS food (alone) = UCR salivation
CS tone (alone) = NOTHING
UCS + CS = UCR salivation
CS tone (alone) = CR salivation
• Learning to repeat rewarded
behavior or extinguish punished
behavior
• Founded by B.F. Skinner
• Extinction, spontaneous
recovery, generalization, and
discrimination work the same
way as in classical conditioning
• Primary reinforcers are innate;
secondary reinforcers are learned
TERMINOLOGY
Type Stimulus Probability of Response
Positive Reinforcer Presented Increases
Negative Reinforcer Withdrawn Increases
Punishment Presented Decreases
Schedule Behavior Reinforced
Continuous Following every desired response
Fixed-ratio Following set number of responses
Variable-ratio Following random number of responses
Fixed-interval On response, following a set time limit
Variable-interval On response, following a random time limit
Word Description
Premack’s Anything can be reinforced by something
Principle more preferred
Shaping Rewards guide behavior in small steps toward
more desired behavior
Skinner Box Soundproof box with a recordable device that
animal manipulates to release reinforcer
Successive The small steps in shaping approximations
MAI N PER S P ECT I V ES
TER M I NOL O G Y
Word Description
Discrimination Learning to distinguish between similar
stimuli and only responding to the CS
Extinction A decline in CR occurs after conditioning
when CS is repeated many times without
UCS
Generalization Tendency to respond not only to CS but to
similar stimuli
Spontaneous CR returns after extinction when CS
Recovery introduced again, a few hours later
REINFORCEMENT
RES E A RCH T ECH N I QUE S
• Description is the simplest form of research
• It involves observing and recording behavior
Type Description Constraints
Case Study Study individuals in Time consuming;
depth to find universal individual may be
truths about people atypical
Naturalistic- Observe and record Intrusions on
Observation behavior of subject in subject’s
natural environment environment
may alter natural
behavior
Survey Study many individuals Questions must
in less depth through be clear; relies on
subjects self-report representativeness
of behavior of subjects as well
as their honesty
• Most important research technique
• Manipulation of single variable while holding all others
constant
• Causation can be determined
• Usually done in lab; experiments may be deemed artificial
DESCRIPTION
EXPERIMENTATION
Behavioral Behavior is a result
of learned responses from environment
Biological Behavior is a result of innate, hereditary, and
physical processes created through
evolution
Cognitive Behavior depends on how we perceive
situation, and our abilities to process, store,
deal with, and retrieve information
Humanistic Behavior is freely chosen by individual, and
not shaped by uncontrollable forces
Psychoanalytic Behavior is a result of unconscious drives
(such as sexual, aggressive) and conflicts
often left unresolved in childhood
Social-cultural Behavior varies across situations and cultures
B.F. Skinner
COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-807-9 1© 1996-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
TM
permacharts
w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m
2nd EDITION

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
permacharts MT College Psychology College Psychology 2nd EDITION CLASSICAL CONDITIONING MAIN PERSPECTIVES • Learning based on subject associating different events that predict Behavioral Behavior is a result each other; based on reflexive behaviors and automatic responses of learned responses from environment to stimuli • Founded by Ivan Pavlov Biological Behavior is a result of innate, hereditary, and physical processes created through • Pavlov is best known for his experiments which conditioned dogs evolution to salivate to an ambiguous stimulus Cognitive Behavior depends on how we perceive situation, and our abilities to process, store, C LASSICAL CONDITIONING STEPS deal with, and retrieve information • Example uses food (stimulus) and salivation (response) Humanistic Behavior is freely chosen by individual, and • An unconditioned stimuli (UCS) that elicits an unconditioned not shaped by uncontrollable forces response (UCR) is paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS); it begins Psychoanalytic Behavior is a result of unconscious drives to elicit the response on its own, which is referred to as a conditioned response (CR) (such as sexual, aggressive) and conflicts often left unresolved in childhood UCS food (alone) = UCR salivation Social-cultural Behavior varies across situations and cultures CS tone (alone) = NOTHING UCS + CS = UCR salivation CS tone (alone) = CR salivation TERMINOLOGY Word Description Discrimination Learning to distinguish between similar OPERANT CONDITIONING stimuli and only responding to the CS • Learning to repeat rewarded Extinction A decline in CR occurs after conditioning behavior or extinguish punished when CS is repeated many times without UCS behavior Generalization Tendency to respond not only to CS but to • Founded by B.F. Skinner similar stimuli • Extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and Spontaneous CR returns after extinction when CS discrimination work the same Recovery introduced again, a few hours later way as in classical conditioning REINFORCEMENT • Primary reinforcers are innate; RESEARCH TECHNIQUES secondary reinforcers are learned DESCRIPTION B.F. Skinner • Description is the simplest form of research Type Stimulus Probability of Response • It involves observing and recording behavior Positive Reinforcer Presented Increases Type Description Constraints Negative Reinforcer Withdrawn Increases Case Study Study individuals in Time consuming; depth to find universal individual may be Punishment Presented Decreases Schedule Behavior Reinforced truths about people atypical Continuous Following every desired response Naturalistic- Observe and record Intrusions on Fixed-ratio Following set number of responses Observation behavior of subject in subject’s natural environment environment Variable-ratio Following random number of responses may alter natural Fixed-interval On response, following a set time limit behavior Variable-interval On response, following a random time limit Survey Study many individuals Questions must in less depth through be clear; relies on TERMINOLOGY subjects self-report representativeness of behavior of subjects as well Word Description as their honesty Premack’s Anything can be reinforced by something EXPERIMENTATION Principle more preferred Shaping Rewards guide behavior in small steps toward • Most important research technique more desired behavior • Manipulation of single variable while holding all others Skinner Box Soundproof box with a recordable device that constant animal manipulates to release reinforcer • Causation can be determined Successive The small steps in shaping approximations • Usually done in lab; experiments may be deemed artificial 1 COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-807-9 www.permacharts .com © 1996-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM RESEARCH TECHNIQUES (CONT’D) EXPERIMENT FUNCTIONS CORRELATION Control The group in which subjects are Independent The environmental variable • Statistical measurement of the Group not exposed to the independent Variable that is manipulated relationship between two variable • Used in comparison variables that describes how with experimental group to Placebo Substance used in treatment said they vary together to be same as real treatment, but evaluate treatment effect is actually inactive • May trigger • Positive correlation means Dependent The behavior that is observed or same effect that subject believes that the two variables increase Variable measured is caused by actual treatment or decrease together • Negative correlation means Double-blind Neither subject nor experimenter Random Feature of experiments in that there is an inverse Procedure knows who has placebo or Assignment which subjects are assigned to relationship (one variable actual treatment (minimize bias) two groups by chance • Avoid Experimental The group in which subjects are differences by dividing subjects increases while other decreases) into equal groups using random • Correlation enables prediction; Group exposed to the independent selection it does not imply causation variable DEVELOPMENT • Many psychologists have developed stages of life development that they assume most people move through Theorist Approx. Age Range (Years) Stage Description Erikson Birth to 1 Trust vs. Mistrust Infant develops trust if needs are met Freud Birth to 1.5 Oral Pleasure center is mouth Piaget Birth to 2 Sensorimotor Experiences world through senses Erikson 1 to 2 Autonomy vs Shame Learns confidence and independence and Doubt Freud 1.5 to 3 Anal Learns control and pleasure of bowel/bladder Piaget 2 to 6 Preoperational Can use words but cannot reason Erikson 3 to 5 Initiative vs. Guilt Learns initiative and self-control Freud 3 to 6 Phallic Learns pleasure of genitals Piaget 7 to 11 Concrete Operational Learns logic and arithmetic Erikson 6 to puberty Competence Learns to feel adequate Sigmund Freud vs. Inferiority Freud 6 to puberty Latency Represses sexuality Piaget 12 to adulthood Formal Operational Learns abstract reasoning skills Erikson Teen to 20s Identity vs. Creates Experiments and eventually role confusion Own Identity Freud Puberty to adulthood Genital Sexual interest matures Erikson 20s to 40s Intimacy vs. Isolation Can form relationships and love intimately Erikson 40s to 60s Middle Adulthood Contributes to world through family and work Erikson 60s to death Integrity vs. Despair Reflects on life and accomplishments MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS • According to Abraham Self- Maslow, throughout life, a actualization Highest human need developing person needs to = need to live up fulfill basic needs of food and to full potential shelter first, and then spend energy on more unique human needs, like love and Esteem Needs = need for acceptance recognition, respect, etc. • Finally, they can strive to Uniquely human needs achieve the highest need, Belongingness and Love Needs = need for love which is living to their full potential and acceptance • These self-actualized people may experience brief flashes of insight or heightened Safety Needs = need to feel safe, secure, and stable awareness, a phenomenon Basic needs Maslow calls “peak- Physiological Needs= need for food and drink experiences” 2 COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-807-9 w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m © 1996-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS PHYSIOLOGY ANXIETY DISORDERS NERVOUS SYSTEM Compulsions Actions that are continually Central Nervous The brain and spinal cord performed so that they System (CNS) interfere with life • Usually The Peripheral Everything else; divided into two parts begin in late teens and early Nervous System (PNS) twenties Somatic System Gets input from senses and directs the skeletal Generalized General unfounded musculature Anxiety apprehension about near Disorder future; sweaty palms, racing Autonomic Nervous Runs automatic parts of body (such as organs) that are System (ANS) part of basic life processes; divided into two parts heart; may have panic attacks (short intense debilitating Sympathetic Division Arouses body (such as speed up heart) anxiety, unpredictable onset) Parasympathetic Does the opposite (such as sl
More Less
Unlock Document


Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit