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Reference Guide

Permachart - Marketing Reference Guide: Penis Envy, Anal Retentiveness, Castration Anxiety

4 pages753 viewsFall 2015

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC90H3
Professor
all
Chapter
Permachart

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Developmental Psychology
Developmental Psychology
INFA N C Y
• Infancy is regarded as birth to about 1 to 2 years old or when language skills have developed
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-813-3 1
SENSATION & PERCEPTION DEVELOPMENT
• Olfaction in infancy is one of the strongest
senses
• After 1 week, infants may detect their mother
by smell alone
• Sense of taste is also strong in infants, and
may develop in the womb due to the strong
taste of amniotic fluid
• Infants show a strong preference for sweet-
tasting foods
• Tactile perception on different areas of the
body generates specific reflexes in infancy
(such as grasping, sucking)
• Pain sensation is not strong at birth but
develops rapidly
• Although sensitivity to sound increases from
birth, it has been shown that, even within the
womb, babies can perceive sound
• Usually takes 6 months before hearing
achieves full potential
• Newborns are sensitive to light and
movement from birth
• Children generally focus on single features
until 2 months old, then can scan an object
for features (such as a human face), recognize
mother’s face by about 3 months of age, and
discriminate between some expressions
• Usually takes 6 months to 1 year before vision
achieves full potential, and about 2 to 3
months to fully perceive color
• Tests with the visual cliff show that, by the
time they are crawling (6 months to 1 year),
infants have generally developed depth
perception by using binocular cues (given by
slightly different images presented by two
eyes)
• Some studies have shown that pictorial cues
techniques used by artists to convey depth)
are also perceivable by infants
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
• Studies have shown that infants can perceive
the distinctive sounds used to form words
(phonemes)
• Infants 6 to 8 months old can distinguish
speech sounds from other languages better
than adults, but lose this ability by the time
they are 1 year old
• By the first year, they usually understand
simple sentences (even though they cannot
produce them)
• Environment plays a large part in language
growth; exposure to parents and siblings is
required for an expanded vocabulary
• Exposure to speech
(passive exposure) is
not as effective as
being challenged to
use language skills
(active exposure)
• Use of question
words develop in a
certain order; what
and where usually precede why and how
• Early childhood is critical to language
learning; children deprived of these skills at an
early age do not typically develop normal
language skills
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
• Newborns are capable of learning, which
occurs as a result of being exposed to stimuli
• Studies show that infant responses to
repeated stimuli eventually fade (for example,
habituation)
Classical conditioning is also shown to be a
factor in infant cognitive development
Observational learning has been seen in
infants as young as 2 to 3 weeks old (facial
expressions of an adult)
Operant conditioning has been seen in
infants 2 to 3 days old
• Studies that condition essential biological
responses (for example, feeding, salivating)
have shown the best results (even in infants
only days old); infant alertness plays a factor
in their ability to learn, as well as the time
interval between the conditioned and
unconditional stimuli
• All types of learning grow stronger as the
child ages
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
• Rate of body growth is faster during first 6
months of life than during any other time
• Skills needed to walk (such as maintaining
upright posture, balance) usually develop
around the first year of age
• Infants do not seem to need visual cues to
maintain balance but rely instead on inner ear
cues; some studies show that visual cues
actually impair this balance
• To some extent, physical maturation also
depends on environmental factors
• Development of each new motor skill opens
up new cognitive and perceptual
opportunities, thus
helping to
advance
development
in those
areas
© 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
w w w . p e r m a c h a r t s . c o m
TM
permacharts
2nd EDITION
Age (months) Skill
1 to 4 Cooing
3 to 6 Babbling
(mono-syllables)
7 to 9 Two syllable
babbling
12 First words
18 to 24 Begin to string
two words
together
DEVELOPMENT OF GROSS
MOTOR SKILLS
Age (months) Skill
1 to 2 Lifts head 45˚
(while lying on
stomach)
2 to 3 Lifts chest
while lying on
stomach
(supported by
arms)
3 Rolls over
4 Sits with
support, holds
own head
steady
6 to 7 Sits without
support
10 Stands with
support
11 Crawls
11 to 12 Stands alone
(briefly)
12 to 14 Walks alone
DEVELOPMENT OF FINE
MOTOR SKILLS
Age (months) Skill
1 Holds objects
in one hand
1 to 2 Moves held
objects, rotates
them
3 to 4 Visually
reaches for
objects, shakes
them
4 to 6 Starts to use
and coordinate
use of both
hands
13 Can use
thumb and
hand in pincer
movement to
manipulate
objects
DEVELOPMENTAL
SKILLS
DEVELOPMENT OF
SPEECH SKILLS
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