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PSYC21 - Lecture 5

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David Haley

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LECTURE 5 Perspectives on Emotional Development Biological Perspectiveemotional expressions are innate and universal rooted in human evolution and based on anatomical structures facial expressions universal among cultures each emotiondistinct group of facial muscles left cerebral hemispherejoy rightfear emotions lateralizedmothers approach greater left mothers withdraw greater right infants of depressed mothers showed less left frontal EEG activation in situations designed to elicitfeelings childhood trauma predicts psychiatric impairment but relationship mediated by abnormal left hemisphere EEG activity Perspectives on Emotional Development Learning Perspectiveuseful for explaining individual differences in emotional expression respond positively to babys smile smiles increase kids classically conditioned to fear doctors giving painful shot during first visit also get fear from operant conditioning when painful fall from climbing up ladder another way to learn fear is by watching others Perspectives on Emotional Development Functional Perspectivepurpose of emotionshelp people achieve social and survival goals emotions impel children toward their goals emotional signals provide feedback that guides others behaviourmemories of past emotions shape how people respond to new situations Facial Expressions of Emotionuniversalhardwired discreet cognitive and physiological patternsadaptive and modifiableindividual developmental and cultural differences in regulation and expression of emotion reflect a certain amount of plasticity in emotional behaviour as well What are Emotionsprimary emotions fear joy disgust surprise sadness interest emerge early in life and not require introspection or selfreflectionsecondary or selfconscious emotions pride shame guilt jealously embarrassment and empathy emerge in second year of life and depend on sense of self and awareness of others reactions
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