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Reference Guide

Abnormal Psychology - Reference Guides

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permacharts MT Abnormal Psychology 2nd EDITION INTRODUCTION ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR • Abnormal psychology (psychopathology) is the branch of • Emotional, cognitive, or behavioral medicine dealing with the scientific study of psychological disorders dysfunctions that are unexpected in affecting the way people think, feel, speak, and behave – thereby context keeping an individual from coping with the normal stresses of life – • These dysfunctions may cause personal and can lead to blocking the ability to achieve personal goals distress or impairment in personal functioning • Normal and abnormal behaviors differ widely between societies and cultures throughout the world – changing as customs, values, and USUAL INDICATORS OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR social conditions and customs change • Personal distress • Observer discomfort Example: Disciplining children via severe beatings was considered • Irrationality (making people around normal adult behavior for centuries; now, this is considered • Unexpected/unusual them uncomfortable) abnormal behavior and cruel; in fact; much legislation has been • Disfunctionality changed to protect children from such behavior behaviors or actions that violates the norm CONVERSION ASSESSMENT & DIAGNOSIS • Assessment is the evaluation and DISORDER PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT TESTS measurement of possible psychological, • Measure changes in the body that occur due SYMPTOMS biological, and social factors that contribute to psychological events to an individual’s psychological disorder • Usually a physical • In diagnosis, the clinician attempts to disorder, such as blindness determine if the problem experienced by the TESTS, TECHNIQUES, & MEASURES or paralysis, pointing to individual meets all the criteria of a particular some sort of neurological psychological disorder Electroencephalogram (EEG): Electrodes are damage with no apparent placed on the individual’s head and chest to organic basis measure electrical currents • Arousal to various • Generally affects sensory – DSM IV stimuli can be measured motor systems, but is not • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Electrodermal responding: Formerly known as restricted to these areas Disorders, Fourth Edition GSR • Measures current that flows through the • Usually develops before • Multiaxial classification used to rate individualskin when voltage is passed through the hand adulthood, ending • Increase in sweat gland activity occurs due to quickly, then often NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS emotional responses • Measures anxiety levels returning • Sometimes difficult to • Tests which identify location of dysfunctions CLINICAL INTERVIEW distinguish between real in the brains of individuals, affecting how they think, feel, and act • Interpersonal interview is styled as a conversation symptoms and faking it • Certain tests indicate damage or dysfunction • Interviewer pays attention to the actual (malingering) in various parts of the brain, depending on answers for individual questions and how they what is being measured were answered (or not answered) CAUSES • Structure can be determined by the interviewer • Usually appears suddenly TEST EXAMPLES & PROCEDURES or a standard structure can be used in some sort of anxiety- Tactile performance test: Blindfolded producing situation, Example: The Schedule for Affective Disorders which allows the individual must fit blocks into a board (first and Schizophrenia (SCID) individual to evade this using preferred hand, then the other hand) activity • Measures motor-response speed to the unfamiliar • Later, individual must draw the BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT • Individual may learn board from memory, placing blocks in correct (unconsciously) that location • Poor performance can indicate • Observation of behavior in real-life or artificially symptoms allow them to damage or dysfunction in the right parietal lobe created settings to directly assess difficulties escape unwanted of the brain • Individuals can also observe their own behavior situations and thus these Category test: Individual is shown images that through self-monitoring symptoms may be suggest numbers between 1 and 4 • By pressing reinforced and persist • Checklists and rating scales can be used to a series of buttons, the individual is signaled as standardize the procedure and improve to whether he/she chose the correct number reliability TREATMENT • Throughout the test, the individual must keep • Care must be taken that the act of observing • Helping individual to track of rules for making correct choices • This does not cause an alteration in behavior (also test measures problem-solving; poor known as reactivity) relive the traumatic event performance on the test can indicate damage (catharsis) can help or dysfunction in the frontal lobes of the brain • Work with individual and Speech sounds perception test: Individual INTELLIGENCE TESTS their support group listens to nonsense words and then tries to pick • Generates a score called an Intelligence (family and friends) to reduce reinforcing words from a set of alternatives • Poor Quotient (IQ) consequences of the performance can indicate damage or • It is only a good predictor of scholastic aptitude, symptoms dysfunction on the left hemisphere of the brain but it does have good reliability and validity 1 ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY • 1-55080-786-2 www.permacharts .com © 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. permachartsTM SCHIZOPHRENIA • Cognitive and emotional disturbances that can disrupt CAUSES perception and impede normal daily functions • There is some evidence for a biological predisposition to schizophrenia • Frontal lobes of the brain seem less active in those with schizophrenia SYMPTOMS • Disorganized speech and • Those with schizophrenia tend to have higher dopamine activity within Note: An affected individual the brain thoughts may only possess or exhibit • High stress seems to be a potential factor in relapse of schizophrenia • Delusions and hallucinations some symptoms • Lack of energy and disinterest in activity (avolition) TREATMENT • Loss of speech or content of speech (alogia) • Neuroleptic drugs are effective in treating the symptoms of • Inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia) schizophrenia • Token economies have shown to have some benefit in teaching • Inappropriate or no emotional responses (flat affect) schizophrenics some of the basic skills necessary for living independently SUBTYPES • Social skills are also taught so that an individual can relate to others in different settings • Various subtypes have been identified in which individuals have specific sets of symptoms PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS Catatonic Disturbed motor responses • Often echo • Various types of psychological tests meet requirements of reliability and the sounds and actions of others • validity to different degrees Individuals with this subtype are rare Disorganized Extreme disruptions in speech and PROJECTIVE TESTS behavior • Flat or inappropriate emotions • Delusions or hallucinations, when they are • Persons are shown ambiguous stimuli and must describe what they see • Assumption is that the individual projects their own personality onto the present, are disorganized • Individuals with stimuli, thus revealing unconscious thoughts within their descriptions this subtype tend to have chronic reactions, starting from a young age • Tests have low reliability and validity Paranoid Many delusions or hallucinations, usually involving persecution • Usually very few, if Rorschach Ten ambiguous inkblots are shown to an individual InkBlot Test • Their descriptions of what they see are interpreted any, of the other symptoms • Individuals by the therapist with this subtype have the best chance of recovery from their situation Thematic Individual must tell stories about a series of black Residual Individuals who have had at least one Apperception and white photos presented to them • Stories are Test (TAT) interpreted by the therapist episode of schizophrenia, but who no longer have any of the major symptoms, are classified with this subtype • These PERSONALITY INVENTORIES individuals typically maintain some of the less severe symptoms • Individual must complete a questionnaire about habits and tendencies • Tests are standardized, so they are generally reliable; however, they Undifferentiated Individuals who do not fit into any of the usually lack validity other subtypes are classified in this subtype • Most common type is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) or the revised version, MMPI-2 ANXIETY DISORDERS • Anxiety is a state of tension and negative effect POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) in which an individual anticipates some sort of DISORDER (PTSD) future danger or disaster • Individual is compelled to repeat the • Anxiety disorders come in various forms • PTSD is a severe emotional disorder that same act over and over, or is flooded follows a traumatic event with persistent thoughts or images • Event is usually relived through nightmares or GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER (GAD) vivid memories (flashbacks) Obsession: A persistent and intrusive • Victim usually experiences a numbing of thought, image, or urge • Common • Individual suffers from constant and emotional responses and avoidance of stimuli obsessions are aggressive or sexual uncontrollable worry about everything that may remind them of the traumatic event impulses, or the need to create order • Individual may experience sweating, pounding Compulsion: A thought or behavior • Other symptoms may be amnesia of the event performed because it is believed that heart, muscle tension, diarrhea, upset stomach, or increased arousal (such as hypervigilance, it will reduce the obsessions • difficulty sleeping, irritability, and chronic anxietproblems sleeping) Common compulsions are rituals • Effects are usually very long-lasting but cannot PANIC DISORDERS be diagnosed until a month after the event (as having to do with checking opposed to acute stress disorder, which (constantly • Sudden, overwhelming attacks of fear, making sure including a variety of other symptoms, such as usually happens immediately following the that the door is labored breathing, chest pains, dizziness, and event but symptoms often disappear much locked) or quicker) cleaning trembling • In some cases, acute stress disorder can (constantly • Attacks often last for a short time, but occur develop into PTSD washing frequently; may occur in response to specific hands) situations (cued) or at unexpected times PHOBIAS (uncued) • Intense, disproportionate fear of a specific event, object, or situation •
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