PSYD33H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Cognitive Therapy, Cortisol, Cognitive Deficit

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29 Apr 2012
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PSYD33 Lecture 4: Feb 1, 2012
Effective function
Phineaus Gage: not a matter of intellect but social judgment that was affected
- clinical function of defining defining by example
- executive function control over resources; who gets what resources
- how much resources or attention paid to particular process
- executive function aware of pressure of butt sitting on chair
- change in mundane thing attention shift very rapidly; weight assigned to signals in that region
- determine which behaviors occur in which individuals; sensory and motor systems are trivial
- i.e. if voice on overhead announces fire in building; whether voice is female or male is irrelevant- only pay attention to
message
- essence of behavioral choice not dependent on sensorimotor system
- many different ways perception of situation can occur; many different motor patterns can get desired outcome
- real center of determining individual differences cognitive, motivational and emotional processes each have
different primary paths
- located anatomically in different parts of frontal lobe; due to connectivity to other parts of brain (i.e. motivation
sadness, hunger, happy, etc.)
- enhancement of processing in network most salient at moment
- other processing streams are inhibited
- consciousness: reading most dominant signal(s) ongoing at any point at time; others are muted and don’t make it into
consciousness
- decision making in last step in executive function process
- decision will go with dominant signal
EF Not Unitary Process
- IQ problem; IQ doesn’t predict success in life
- injuries in frontal lobe doesn’t not always impact IQ i.e. in Phineas Gage
- dorsolateral damage impaired on WCST; perseveration whatever was learned previously repeated over and over
again, difficult to learn new pattern
- EF = “fluid intelligence”
- some claim fluid intelligence not looked beyond just cognitive sphere
Three EF Tasks:
- threat to cognitive EF = ADHD only has brief time to focus on particular problem and attention shifts because don’t
have inhibitory resources to block everything else out
- some people process things more quickly than others
- cognitive EF = providing enough resources, inhibiting others to solve problem efficiently
- motivational EF = for motivationally appealing/ immediate gratification - motivational EF inhibit so cognitive system
can come into play to figure out if it is a good thing to do long term
- i.e. over-eating: cognitively determine when to stop eating not because full (for obese not full) but because excess
calories
- only focus on what’s going to feel good now but would be harmful for future (long term consequence)
- if can’t stop focus on motivational gratification = make poor decisions
- emotional state different; no particular survival value
- emotions can be useful but when not too extreme can be dysfunctional; when can’t think
- to think, need moderate amount of arousal
Different Systems: Different Executives
- cognition = one- to one correspondence btw two things
- precise relationship btw constructs or objects
- emotion = may lead to action but does not necessarily compel action
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