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Psychology Notes chapter 8.docx

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Steve Joordens

Psychology NotesChapter 8November 242010Memory is the cognitive process of encoding storing and retrieving informationEncoding refers to the active process of putting stimulus information into a form that can be used by our memory systemsStorage refers to the process of maintaining information in memoryRetrieval refers to the active process of locating and using information stored in memory A lapse of time may occur between the act of learning and a change in behaviour caused by learning Ex You see a new restaurant you go the restaurant after a few daysThe usefulness of memory manifests itself in behaviour Three forms of memory sensory shortterm and longtermSensory memory is the memory in which representations of the physical features of a stimulus are stored for a brief period of timefor a second or less o Contains all the information that has been perceived o A sight that we have just seen or an echo of sound that we have just heard o Holds information long enough to become shortterm memoryShort term memory is an immediate memory for stimuli that has just been perceived o Has a limit to the number of items it can store and for how long o Information soon leaves this type of memory unless it can be converted to long term form Long term memorymemory in which information is represented on a permanent or near permanent basiso Has no know limits and is relatively durable o It does not need to be continualy rehearsed we can stop thinking about it and recall it at a late date Sensory Memory We are not always aware of sensory memoryWe become aware it only when information is presented briefly and so we can perceive it and its after effectsEx When we see lightning of a thunderstorm we see things before we recognize themIconic Visual Memory Is a form of sensory memory that briefly holds a visual representation of a scene that has just been perceivedIs sometimes called visible persistence close ties to perceptionEx Flashing a set of 9 letters on a screen for 50 millisecondso Usually people can only recall 4 or fiveo The image of the letter faded to fast for them to identify all of them
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