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Steve Joordens

Roshan Singh 092507 Mr. Joordens PSYA01H3 Chapter 2 Notes The scientific method only guarantees that the particular question being asked will be answered and it is not necessary that it will be relevant when applied to everyday life situations. In fact, most of them are trivial and in a sense if a trivial question is asked, you are given a trivial answer. Goal of scientific psychological research is to discover the causes of behaviour. Scientists conduct 3 main types of research: Naturalistic observation The observation of the behaviour of people or other animals in their natural environments. Least formal and require very few rules to be followed. It provides the foundation to the biological and social sciences. Example: Charles Darwin Correlational study The examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals. Researchers examine this in order to explain the observed behaviours. Experiment A study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of a dependent variable. Only experiments can confirm the existence of cause-and-effect relations among variables. Scientific method A set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observational studies or experiments. Replication Repetition of an experiment or observational study to see whether previous results will be obtained. In the original Greek, hypothesis means suggestion and it still conveys the same meaning. Hypothesis A statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment, that tentatively expresses a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more events. A common misconception is that research hypotheses occur spontaneously and mysteriously to scientists. It occurs as a result of accumulated research and scholarship. Theory A set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena; more encompassing than a hypothesis. It is basically a way of organizing a system of related hypotheses to explain some larger aspect of nature. A good theory is one that generates testable hypotheses i.e. hypotheses that can potentially be supported or proved wrong by scientific research. Variable Anything capable of assuming any of several values. Manipulation Setting the values of an independent variable in an experiment to see whether the value of another variable is affected.
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