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Chapter 10 textbook notes

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Steve Joordens

Psychology Chapter 10: Language On conclusion that has emerged from primate studies is that true verbal ability is a social behaviour. Psycholinguistics- A branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour . More concerned with human cognition. ( interested in how children acquire language: how verbal behaviour develops and how kids learn to speak based on their interactions w adultssame w studying on how adults use language etc.). Speech does not come to us as a series of individual words; we must extract the words from a stream of speech The auditory system during speech recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves When it comes to analyzing detailed info of speech, the Left Hemisphere plays a larger role The analysis of speech begins with its elements, or Phonemes: smallest units of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word. Ex: Pin- P+i+n Voice- onset time- the delay bw the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of the vibration of the vocal cords. Phenomic discriminations begin w auditory processing of the sensory diff, and this occurs in both hemispheres Ganong- found that the perception of a phoneme is affected by the sounds that follow it. (Gift, Kift, they chose G when it was followed by ift, and K when followed by iss). This suggests that we recognize speech spunds in pieces larger than indi. Phonemes Phonemes are combined to form Morphemes(ex: Fastest contains two morphemes: fastest)- which are the smallest units of meaning in language. The syntax of a particular language determines how phonemes can be combined to form morphemes. Phonemes combine to form morphemes, which are the smallest units of meaning in language. The syntax of a particular language determines how phonemes can be combined to form morphemes. Ex: FASTEST, made up of FAST which is a FREE morpheme (cuz it stands on its own and still has MEANING) and IST which is a BOUND morpheme (cant stand on its own, has to be attached to other morphemes to provide meaning) We are able to recognize the sounds in speech because of the CONTEXT. Context affects the perception of words through top-down processing. All languages have a syntax, or grammar. They follow certain principles, which linguistics call Syntactical rules, for combing words to form phrases, clauses or sentences. Syntax prvides imp. info. Our understanding of syntax is automatic. FMRI studies showed that as syntax becomes more difficultcomplex, our brains become more active. Synactical cues help us understand what others are saying. These S. Cues are signalled by: word order, function and content words, affixes, word meanings, and prosody. Word order(basically order of words - boy hit the ball, diff. than the ball hit the boy)
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