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Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx

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Steve Joordens

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Lecture 2 History of Psychology  1800s psychology was born  Something is science when experiments are done to eliminate theories, rather than philosophy which is purely theory and belief  Animism -> belief that inanimate objects have soul and/or intentions -> Anthropomorphism  Magic -> concept of soul that is there b/c we don't understand ourselves and is like magic but once we figure out the mechanisms, the magic goes away and so does the soul  Are we like Watson where we just bring out information but more complex so do we have a soul as well?  Rene Descartes (1596-1650) nervous breakdown at 17 and had to chill out. He walked parks in Paris and went to new feature and saw statue of Diana (Artemis), and as he approaches he sees Neptune blocking him to see the statue and he was amazed. (Hydraulics brought out water not let him pass) He saw however that the stone and statue acted like they had a soul. If something moved with intention, it had a soul back then so Rene discarded this theory. He said animals are clever machines without souls and simply biology or hydraulics and nothing else whereas humans are dualistic where we have a mechanical materialistic part but we also have a soul that can control the machinery -> Cartesian Dualism  John Locke a philosopher said even our mind was a machine but didn't come up with a name for it  James Mill came up with the name as Materialism meaning there is no soul within us and we are all physical matter  John Locke claimed notion of la table rassa meaning we are born a blank slate and we grow up to fill that slate (nurture), and brought out empiricism -> experiments that bring out the truth and testing ideas (makes something a science)  Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) shows the royal society of London (science) a frog leg, and stimulates the muscle with electrical stimulation and makes it move and keeps on mentioning that it is a dancing leg that has no soul, and proves that the body follows physical laws  Johannes Muller cut up many animal and human bodies discovered that we are made of essentially wires (nervous system) and we are machine  Pierre Florens worked with animals and did ablation studies by testing them and put it under surgery and destroy certai
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