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Lecture

Psychology Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Tanzina Mohsin
Semester
Fall

Description
Psych Lecture 1- Chapter 1 9/14/2013 9:56:00 AM It all centers around the notion of soul Psych is a science, study of how things interact The study of our behaviors is very new, about 100 years old was born in 1800 hundreds Why did it take so long for us to study ourselves? It all connects to science and what science is about Distinction between philosophy and science - concept, morality, science is an extension of psych - philosophers think you could answer by thinking and arguing - whereas science, you can think of an argument but you must test it - science involves experiments to weed out the bad ideas from good ideas - psych involves debating, arguing and thinking, through philosophical means, near the newton times, there was a real push for experimentation, data collection etc. people stopped believing in things just cause someone told them it was true and found the real truth by experimenting - for it to make sense there must be some sort of mechanics underlying each observation, - certain rules that’ force certain things to happen, we get to the underlying certain laws - there is a problem where humans thought we were different, where everything was materialistic, we have something within us, we are spiritual - if we are not material and we are spiritual it doesn’t make sense to study humans scientifically - if we were not wholly spiritual and part material then we are open to scientific notation - back in the day, souls were given out by humanity - back beyond cave year, where they thought everything was composed of 4 things, earth ,air, fire and water - ex battery would be earth, if it drops it falls to the earth, because its an earth things - smoke things like to be in the air, air things like to be in the air - called ANEMISM - there was a view that everything in the world had a soul, view - even the weather seems to have goals - contrasting animism with magic : intelligence vs magic - intelligence and soul is somewhat the same - everything about us is mechanical/material and once we notice it concept of soul will disappear - animism view: giving souls all over the place - magic view: where we take souls away even from ourselves - the computer on jeopardy beat the humans on jeopardy does it have a soul? personality? Just algorithms, all software Are we like Watson the computer?? Were just so complex that we don’t know our own algorithms but they’re there - Rene Descartes: is like a villain in certain cases based on his perspective, called CARTISIAN DUALISM - Rene, famous now and was famous before contributed to mathematics philosophy but had mental issues, couldn’t fit in socially and had a nervous breakdown around 17, doctor told him to chill out and he walked the parks in Paris - Came to one park that had a special feature, he saw a statue of Diana goddess of the hunt, as he approaches comes Neptune blocking the path prevent the view of Diana - How did this happen?? There was a pressure plane, when he stepped on it forced water through tube and had enough strength which had pushed the stature out onto his path (hydraulics) - He saw a rock move with intention, statue behaved like a living soul - He stated that he had seen something move with intention before, without a soul therefore he concluded that moving with intention is no longer the defining feature of possessing a soul - animals have no soul, very clever machines but no soul, just bology or hydraulics - Humans, are dualistic creatures, we have a machine part that is like the animals, biological, material, mechanical but we have a soul that can control the machinery , controls some of our behavior, some of it can be biological, material - He found a middle ground, Cartesian dualism (saying that humans have part of a soul not fully) that’s how philosophy got people thinking of human behavior (as machines) - John locke was a philosopher he took renes ideas further, even our mind is a machine, rene stopped at humans are machines - James Mill the notion that we are utterly physical!! He called it materialism! All of our behavior reflect natural laws that can understand that there is no soul within us, called materialism (complex biological machines) - John locke (la table rassa) born with a blank slate, that life makes us who we are, NOT TRUE THOUGH, there is genetics vs. environment although he said that genetics doesn’t matter - he stated that every baby has a blank slate and we can become whoever we want to be - EMPIRICISM: science is based on research, data collection etc. - if I’m right this should happen, if your right this would happen - get out the truth though experimentation and data collection - wont get anywhere without testing ideas experimentally - basically the birth of phycology switch to biologists now!! LUIGI GALVANI - Italian, this is frog leg, no frog, just the leg, it is dead no soul in the leg - Took static electricity, or battery and touched it to the dead frog leg, the leg moved - He then said that what we have here is a dancing dead frog leg with no soul, it is moving with no soul - that showed that we are partly machine not hydraulic we are electro chemical at least partly - this started a whole fascination of the human body as a machine J.M: he discovered that we are made up of wires neurocircuits look like machines - wrote the DSNE which was all about describing the human body in machine terms - our bodies are machine like COOL, but not soul and spirit P.F – ABLATION STUDIES- take an animal do a bunch of tests and then do experiments/surgery and you destroy certain parts of its brain - with heat or electrical current or knife - allow animal to recovery and test it again, he found that specific parts of the brain were in charge of specific abilities - some parts, pretend to be blind, some parts, can be paralyzed - felt like a machine - ALL ANIMAL WORK P.B : LOL: doctor, he happened to notice that many patients showed the same symptomology, LANGUAGE - could understand language, connect but couldn’t respond - he said he would like to wait until they die and then crack open your skull and see what was wrong with their brain - he noticed that most of them had damage above the ear, BROKASE AREA - was very critical for language - human brains seemed machine like DO HUMANS HAVE SOULS? Suggests that there’s a lot of room to thinking that human behavior in materialist terms, that part should behave according to natural laws, certain rules how the brain works, they should show up in human behavior Certain part of human behavior open to scientific investigation, all of it though?? Consciousness has a biological basis, that we can understand that at a very deep level - Einstein was studying the machine, believed it was material but it gave hints about god cause god made the machine - - Darwin took years release the evolution theory, he was a christen he knew that the e.t would be problematic for a Christian but he knew he was right based on his data - he was stuck! Psych Lecture 2 – Chapter 1 9/14/2013 9:56:00 AM Why Germany?? - old Germany, pre world war 1 Germany, strong economically powerful - land where new ideas were supported - psych was born Hermann von Helmholtz: measured speed of neural impulses - surprisingly slow - biological message transmission much slower through a wire - he showed that measuring the human machine could be done Ernst Weber: Psychophysics - measured how things work inside the inner mind - lot of studies that had to do with human sensation - studied how sensitive our mind is (internal sensations) - follows a mathematical process Willhelm Wundt: first psychologist - took a step further than Weber - Wundt would train students to introspect - got people to verbally describe their internal experiences - people eventually didn’t tell him everything they were experiencing How precise is psych in comparison to a science?? Darwin: what’s more important? Is it enough to describe how something looks and stop there, or go further and determine WHY that certain thing/object had those specific properties - took his ideas from geology and applied them to animals - maybe the attributes an animal has is somehow connected to the environment it lives in - fit with the environment (survival of the fittest) - from his theory he concluded that only certain things would evolve - certain animals with certain attributes would only survive in specific atmospheres - artificial selection *** selective breeding (expand) - Darwin said that there could be natural selection William James: who cares what things look like, lets find its purpose - studied more the function of experience rather than the fe
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