Psychology Lecture 30 (Chapter 8- Slide 1-16)
Slide 2: Memory we think of is more episodic memory (ex. What did you have for breakfast?), in which
you consciously recreate an image what happened at that time. This is only one of many memory
systems, and should therefore be seen as a multiple instead of singular.
The past experience can be an influence, and memory is reinforcing that influence.
Slide 3: If you start with A+B=3, you decide if it’s true or false and see if that rule you think is followed
throughout. Eventually you get faster and figure out an algorithmic problem solving. A little while later,
you see examples that reappear, and you will then solely rely on memory on the repeating questions.
Slide 4: Memory can be broken down into several systems. Sensory memory- a stimulus from the
environment first comes into contact with this memory.
Slide 5: When a light enters your eyes, you can still see it a little after it’s gone- it’s a trace. Ex: sparkler-
you move a sparkler, you can see the line, the trail, in which the sparkler was moved.
Sensory memory is important when we’re not attending what we are sensing (ex. We listening to music,
we can still see a trace when we return to vision).
Move fast from Slide 6-8, and write what you saw, and pay attention to what happens to your mind. You
generally see around 4-5 letters, even though they saw about all of them before they fade away from a
mind. Full report condition: you report all 9 that you see in a box, and it’s typically 4-5.
Partial report condition: Slide 9-11: You report the letters stated on the row indicated. In most cases,
you got 2-3 of them (an average of 2.5). The logic is that people report an average of 2.5 in any of the
rows, so 7.5 had been available in store, which is more than in the full report. Why is there such
difference? The claim is that it’s about the time and the place. By the time you report on that row, the
rest is fading away.
This technique helps record with reporting conditions, but also the time it takes. Vision seems to last
about a second, which helps us notice something even when we switched attention.
Slide 12: Ex: annoying brother rants beside you, and when you interrupt him, you replay it in your mind
and realize what he was saying. Another example is when you talk with someone, you say ‘what?’, they
say it again, but by then you caught up on what was said before. That’s because your mind still hangs
onto what was said.
When someone reads a set of numbers, see how many you can recall after they say stop. You’d
generally recall the last four numbers from your echoic memory. Your echoic memory lasts about 4
seconds- longer than the visual one, meaning that the sounds, especially speech are seen as more
important. You need more information to process what was said, so you replay the last few things that