Psychology Lecture 29 (Chapter 7)
Slide 22: Primary reinforcers- reinforcement that rely on your basic needs (ex. Food, sleep, pain
Secondary reinforce- an indirect way to obtain something (ex. Marks are not directly rewarding, but
down the road it can help you get a job that can provide you primary reinforcers). Another example are
Wikipedian- they are feeling good in providing more details on an article.
Primary reinforce is short term, but secondary reinforce is something that makes us think ahead for the
We are probably better than other species because we have that indication of planning in the future.
We have rules set up in order to the long-term reward.
Sociopaths- People who are unable to see the consequence of their actions. For them a short-term
situation dominates over their mind.
Consequences are plentiful, not singular.
Slide 23: Would you want a free society without judgment and rules? Not really in a mind where you can
do everything, but more in consideration of safety for you and your family and removes fear. Often
police forces promote these rules, mostly by using punishment. Jail is a punishment in a way, but
simultaneously removes the appetitive stimulus (your home, family etc). They don’t, but occasionally,
add positive reinforcement (like reward good drivers) because there are too many positive people for
them to reward.
Punishment is not seen as an optimal form. When you get punished, you have negative emotions that
will be aimed toward the punisher.
There are many unwritten rules that we follow. Ex: in the past there was a new law admitted that
women are allowed to walk topless. Even so, no women walk topless in public, because there will still be
negative reinforcement in public, since they’ll see it as a stupid idea.
Slide 24: Rolling stop example: our behavior quickly comes to match the reinforcements that had been
made instead of the rules. Some dri