Psychology Lecture 23 (Chapter 6)
Slide 7: European response to Siegmund Freud with studies on perception.
North American responded with behaviourism.
When you look at a scene, you figure out what is the subject, the foreground (figure), and which is the
background (ground). In the image, the blue part is the figure.
But how does the visual system figure this out?
Looking at a figure, you see the edges, and that would assume that the figure is the focus.
Slide 8: left image- you can see both two people and a white vase. This one is an ambiguous image in
that both parts can be figures.
Right image- image by Esher, another famous one is the impossible staircase.
Slide 9: you can have a single image that can be ambiguous- you can see a young, fashionable woman,
but also an old woman.
This is a way where sensation and perspective play a role. You can flip the image from one perspective
to another, but the sensory is not changed.
Slide 10: Left image: Stare at the cube for a while, and the image will start changing in that one square
will be in more focus. Now you can easily switch back and forth between the faces (and supposedly the
easier you can flip, the higher your IQ).
Right Image: you can see the yellow cube pop out, and also the red cube stand out.
Slide 11: Gestalt laws- gestalt means that when more than one are put together, they become larger
then added up.
Slide 12: the notion that you see objects over elements. Here the green dots emerge and produce a
higher level perception (‘Hi’).
The global local pact- global: the big shape (the blue shapes are Es). These are made up of Es and Fs on
the local level. It’s easy to pick out the global shape, but it’s more difficult to perceive the local level,
especially the Fs in the global E (like the Stroop feature, it’s incongruent). The global interferes with the
local level, but not vice versa.
Slide 13: First law is proximity- how would you perceive the one on the left differently from the right?
Globally you could give shapes, like rectangle and square. But more specifically you could mention
circles that are arranged in columns. The proximity, the