Lecture 5 (Chapter 1: Slide 13-17)
North America focused on behaviouralism- science based with a stimuli and response
1960s: because of war, the government became interested in cognitive psychiology, which psychologists
were against. Scientists used computers as a model- input, process, output, and had memories. We had
software that stored information and passed it to other- cognitive process. Scientists try to incorporate
this by applying science to it.
Hard science- chemistry, physics, are considered hard, but it’s actually easy, since you can ‘see’ the
material and process. It’s considered hard because it embraces math, which most people are having a
hard time with.
Psychology is a science that needs indirect approaches since you can’t see the subject- the mind. We can
try to get at what is happening even though we can’t see it. It requires a complexity and a process that is
more difficult to handle. It is considered ‘soft’ because you have data that is difficult to use.
Psychology is interested in learning- how, how long, and how we do things. Ex guitar playing takes hours
to learn how to use the fingering, and eventually practiced so long that it becomes automatic.
Slide 15: instead of reading the words in the grey box, read the colour the words are in. In one slide, the
words are congruent- the word=colour, but on the next slide, the word points to an incongruent
response, where it does not match the colour. The second slide takes longer to read, because we are
inclined to read the word- you cannot turn off the word-reading system. At what point of age can we
shut off that reading system? You cannot measure that, but you can measure the reading ability
indirectly like this- cognitive study.
We got to a point today where we know that these cognitive studies are important, but we need to
apply science to this cognitive revolution (1960-70s)
Technology drives how the way science is done, which includes psychology. Ex: Paul Broca (slide 6) cut
open their head, but now we have MRI to look at the brain while the patient is conscious and alive. We
have tools to watch the brain when it was active. This brought us back to neuroscience and cognitive
neuroscience (attempt to understand both soft- and hardware of the brain, which is dominant today). Chapter 2:
Slide 2: Naturalistic Observation. Ex Jane Goodall went to A