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Lecture 7

Psychology Lecture 7.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Psychology Lecture 7 Slide 16: Reliability- you look for precision for an instrument to be reliable. (precision- get consistent numbers when you repeat the same action) Validity- a valid measure of what it says it measures, but it’s not reliable. Ex. Measuring height using elastic band is valid, but not reliable, because you can stretch it. The example of Lecture 6 (IQ b/w white and black kids): IQ tests seemed reliable, but after that incident, it was not. You also test the person’s reading and comprehension when you use words, but the result could vary among the person and their background. You measure more than just intelligence. Ex. You wanna study a baby- at what point would they see colour? Use preferential looking task: two monitors and a camera in front of the baby- one coloured, one B/W, and they change colour and black and white screens between those monitors. The baby should look at the colour picture since it’s more interesting. However, babies do not follow those directions, they do whatever they want- they’re still looking, but they are disguised under their drooling and bobbing etc. So how can you make this reliable?  Independent scores: research students watch these experiments and score where they think the babies looked and compare with each other’s record. If these are the same, then there’s more confidence. Inter-rater Reliability  Are there dependent/independent variables? –independent is difficult to categorize (age), since you pick babies and just use the age that they are in. Slide 17: For imprecise experiments, judges come and decide and agree what is happening. Slide 19: An experimenter was an attractive looking man, many women looked at him, and in relationships would be more short-time. Control experiment: participants use computers, and the experimenters are present as well to see their self-consciousness. The experimenter chooses where the participants go once they enter- the attractive women were put into the room where the experimenter was there as well (he was attractive as well). Experimentally that was bad; the goal was to see the difference of being watched and not watched. But the watched groups were predominantly women, and most likely were talked to. This would mean that other groups could have had different results.  he created a confound (anytime when groups differ other than the ones
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