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APLUS PSYA01 Textbook Notes - Chap 5-9.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Summer

Description
PLEASE DO NOT COPY - Ex. rub your eyes  light-sensitive receptors are there, and they are mechanically stimulated  action potentials are produced in the optic nerves  brain acts as if the neural activity in the optic nerves was produced by light  you see stars and flashes - This can be seen in the other senses too - artificially stimulate the nerves that convey taste  sensation of taste - electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve  sensation of a buzzing noise Temporal Coding - Temporal coding: a means by which the nervous system represents information; different features are coded by the pattern of activity of neurons - it is in terms of time - The simplest form of temporal code is rate: by firing at a faster/slower rate according to the intensity of a stimulus, an axon can communicate quantitative information to the brain - Ex. light touch  encoded by a low rate of firing; more forceful touch  by a high rate of firing - Anatomical coding: The firing of particular set of neurons tells where the body is being touched - Temporal coding: the rate at which these neurons fire tells how intense that touch is Psychophysics - Psychophysics: a branch of psychology that measures the quantitative relation between physical stimuli and perceptual experience - physics of the mind - Scientists have to find ways to measure people’s sensations, and there are two methods: the just-noticeable difference and the procedures of signal detection theory The Principle of the Just-Noticeable Difference - Weber looked at the ability of humans to discriminate between various stimuli, he measured the just-noticeable difference (jnd) - just-noticeable difference (jnd): the smallest difference between two similar stimuli that can be distinguished; also called difference threshold - The jnd is directly related to the magnitude of that stimulus - Give people two metal objects and ask if they were different in weight - participants said they were the same unless they differed by a factor of 1 in 40 (they could barely distinguish 40 g and 41 g; 80 g and 82 g, etc. - the difference in weight between 40 and 41 g, and 80 and 82 g is the jnd - Different senses had different ratios ex. ratio for differences in brightness of white light is 1 in 60 - Weber fraction: the ratio between a jnd and the magnitude of a stimulus; reasonably constant over the middle range of most stimulus intensities - Fechner: used Weber’s concept of the jnd to measure people’s sensations - assumption: the jnd was the basic unit of a sensory experience - he measured the absolute magnitude of a sensation in jnds - Experiment: put participant in dark room and have two bulbs (one is sample, one is comparison) - sample is turned off, comparison is brightened until they notice a difference  the value is one jnd - set sample to one jnd, comparison is brightened until they notice a difference  the value is two jnds - continue this until the lights become uncomfortably bright th Notes by Mary Lee Notes from Psychology the Science of Behavior 4 Ed Carlson/Heth
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