PSYA01 Sept. 14
Germany was very powerful at the time that psychology was starting to get started:
o Meant lots of money for: a strong military and research into science.
o Led to wars
State funded research
o More chances for research into psychology to be carried out.
Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
He studied measuring the speed of neural impulses.
People thought this was difficult and even impossible at the time.
His experiment involved measuring the nerves from hand-spine-brain.
This was tested by a chain of hand squeezes, timed.
Von Helmholtz knew the average nerve span, time to complete the chain,
amount of people… this led to being able to calculate the speed of neural
Humans have very slow neural impulses, generally, when compared to machines.
Ernst Weber (1795-1878)
He studied ‘psychophysics’:
How the mind works with ‘conscious experiences’.
His experiment involved getting a blindfolded person with two different weights (one per
hand) and asking the person to identify when they felt a weight distance.
It took a one in ten ratio in weight differences to identify a difference.
This led to proof that what happens in the mind follows mathematics.
Willhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
He was the first to refer to himself as a ‘psychologist’.
Wrote the first psychology textbook The Principles of Physiological Psychology
He founded the structuralist approach. PSYA01 Sept. 14
This involved introspection: looking within one’s own mind.
This practice was not generally accepted by the public.
o Introspection cannot be objectively studied. Subjects cannot be trusted as
they can censor themselves when asked questions.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
Did not truly ‘create’ ev