PSYA01 Oct. 24/29
Altered States of Consciousness
o medical term of ‘conscious’
o Give conscious control to hypnotist
We spend 1/3 of our life asleep
Evolution theories for sleep:
1. Sleep must be critically important
If it wasn’t, our ancestors wouldn’t have slept and it would have been phased out
2. Hunting/gathering takes energy but we get energy from food
At night, we are even more defenseless – we can’t see at night
Sleeping at night meant we didn’t have to expend energy when we didn’t have to
Stages of sleep PSYA01 Oct. 24/29
Deep sleep: brain releases neurochemical that paralyzes muscles for dreaming (those
without this neurochemical ‘act out’ in their sleep. (this occurs sort of around stage 4)
‘Running away’ in dreams: dream senses that muscles have been paralyzed and
is trying to get away
Internal world is influenced by external world that is relatively stable – this means the
internal world is stable. During dreams, influence comes from brain which is not stable.
Stages 1 – 5: cycles that occur a few times a night. Stage 1 only occurs a couple of
times a night.
Early in the night is where you get your cycles of deep sleep. After that, you mostly get
Woken up in stage 4: This is not good because the neurochemical that paralyzes you is
still in action.
REM (rapid eye movement): occurs when dreaming
Deprivation studies: without sleep, people will eventually die
When you wake someone up during REM sleep, this tends to restart the sleep
cycle. Without this, a few days can lead to hallucinations.
Sleep and Physical Repair
The link between sleep and physical repair may be more psychological than
Marathon runners (example): people travel all over for marathons. Sleep is
thrown off by travel, however, this does not affect race times. Actually, it may
even lead to personal bests.
Habitual tasks (running for marathons [?]) seem to be immune to sleep disruptions, only
tasks that require deep (conscious [?]) thought (chess) are affected.
Sleep and Learning (Consolidation)
Consolidation: during sleep, brain memorizes