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Lecture 18

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Malcolm Mac Kinnon

Lecture 18:  Can you improve your memory? Yes, by using memory techniques.  Working memory into long term memory (Studying): Depth of encoding  If you are trying to remember something, you should elaborate on something (elaborate encoding)  Forming images and connecting it to other thing/memories. Thus making it easier to remember  When studying we are going through 3 states. First stage by understanding the text. Second stage (taking notes and creating multiple choices)-elaborate encoding.  Shallow processing: When you are just skimming, introspect there is nothing being retained in your mind  Dual reading: When we take our senses and refer to a word (e.g needle-pain)  When we put information in a very structural and organized way, we can retrieve that information quickly.  Structure provides good memory retrieval cues  Encoding: getting information and processing into long term memory  Jill Price: an obsessive impulsive about encoding. As a result she has an amazing, creepy memory. She is able to replay many episodes of her life over and over again.  The challenge of the brain: How do we remember the things we want to remember and how do we forget the things we want to forget-this is through the process of the working memory  Consolidation: Something that happens without the conscious control. The brain has the ability to restructure itself to accept that new information to make it readily available.  If something happens before that can occur, we have a loss of memory  When you get hit on the head hard consolidation does not happen.  People who have had a concussion (brain hits the skull-brain shuts down) they are unable to recall what happened a few minutes before-unable to consolidate.  Conscious mind to the memory: The explicit memory branch  Episodic Memory: You get a whole episode with the memory (you can remember the specific content, setting etc.)  Somatic memory: When we encounter information over multiple episodes, no specific episode stands out  We learn Scripts/Schema- that tell us how to act in a given situation and we follow them  Is memory a video camera? Does our conscious memory store everything that happens in your life?-No  Bardlet: He told people a story and then were told to retell the story. The story that they repeated had aspects that were changed. The changes were due because they “made everything fit into their world”  False memory: they believe that it was in there memory, but it wasn’t Lecture 19:  We have a lot of trouble telling the difference between real data (Stored and retrieved) and the inferences and assumptions that was laid upon the real data, to make it a real data  When we interact with the world is on a surface level  Memory is trying to reconstruct events that have little details about  We cannot encode and store every memory detail  Transfer appropriate processing: your likelihood of remembering something is highly related to similarity of the retrieval memory to the encoding context.  If you learned something on dry land, you will learn about dry land better in that that type of setting-trying to remember in a context using your memory.  People learn the best when the context matches setting.  We can learn something without trying. We will not learn information without trying.  Retrospective amnesia: When you remember absolutely nothing  Prospective amnesia: in ability to remember new information. There is damage to the hippocampus  Despite the lack of conscious memory you can still learn  The claims is: amnesiacs are learning the structural of the world  Implicit learning: we have learned something true, but we haven’t learned the formal rules-the explicit concept (not consciously learned)  We can learn new things by being immersed.  We learns schemas implicitly  Implicit systems is related to familiarity and exposure  Familiarity makes things stand out (REPEATEDLY PRESENTED)  Whatever question is in mind, the familiar context will be the answer  Déjà vu- is an illusion of familiarity Lecture 20:  After Darwin creating the concept of survival of the fittest, lead to the discovery of genetics  It was thought that people were designed to be this person since birth because of genetics. Maybe our genetics control everything about us  Psychologist believe that you will change based on the functions you experience in life.  Scientists wanted to measure things objectively and not subjectively.  Objectively: Measuring something, without you interpreting  Stimulus: Something you can see and directly measure. You can objectify and quantify  Behaviourist: Being able to scientifically measure.  Subjectively: Referring to mental process.  How did our behaviours get as complicated as they are
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