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Roshan Singh 011208 Mr. Joordens PSYA01H3 Chapter 10 Notes -Our use of language is behaviour. Spoken words by themselves are highly organized patterns of motor activity. It is seen in the case of Carl Bennett where under the influence of Tourettes syndrome, they are simple behaviours such as twitching and finger tapping. When organized into language, they can communicate the complex steps of a surgical procedure. Bennett was able to suppress the random words whenever he needed to communicate clearly and precisely. Our use of language can be private (talking to oneself) but the development of language involves social interactions among our early ancestors. Speaking and writing are social behaviours as we learn them from other people and use them to communicate with them. We also use language as a tool in our own remembering and thinking. Language also enables us to think about very complex and abstract issues by encoding them in words and then manipulating the words according to logical rules. Linguists have studied the rules of language and have described precisely what we do when we speak or write. Psycholinguistics A branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour. Researchers in this field are more concerned with human cognition than with the particular rules that describe language. They are more interested in how children acquire language i.e. how verbal behaviour develops and how children learn to speak from their interactions with adults. They also study how adults use language and how verbal abilities interact with other cognitive abilities. Human vocalizations contain enough information that we can recognize individuals from the sounds of their speech. We can filter out the nonspeech sounds such as coughs, within an individuals vocalization. The auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves. Belin, Zatorre, and Ahad (2002) used fMRI scans and found that some regions of the brain responded more when people heard human vocalizations (speech and non-speech) than when they heard only natural sounds. Regions where there was a large difference were located in the temporal lobe, on the auditory cortex. The auditory area on the left hemisphere showed a greater contrast in response to the natural speech or speech that had been scrambled in frequency. This suggests that the left hemisphere plays a larger role when it comes to analyzing the detailed information of speech. Phoneme The minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language, such as p Voice-onset time The delay between the initial sound of a consonant (such as the puffing sound of the phoneme p) and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords. Voicing is the vibration of your vocal cords. The delay in voicing that occurs when you say pa is very slight: only 0.06 seconds. Phonemic discriminations begin with auditory processing of the sensory differences, and this occurs in both hemispheres. Scott, Blank, Rosen and Wise (2000) identified some of the areas in the left
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