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University of Toronto Scarborough

Roshan Singh 022408 Mr.Fournier PSYA02H3 Chapter 13 Notes Motivation A general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength, or persistence of an individuals behaviour. It includes 2 types of phenomena: - Stimuli that have become associated with pleasant or unpleasant events motivate approach or avoidance behaviours. - Being deprived of a particular reinforcer increases an organisms preference for a particular behaviour. There are many approaches to motivation: - Physiological, Behavioural, Cognitive and Social Our behaviour is motivated by situations that we tend to approach or to avoid. Situations that motivate our behaviour also provoke emotions. We are motivated to perform a behaviour to gain (avoid losing) a reinforcer or to avoid (escape) a punisher. Regulatory behaviour A behaviour that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis. Examples: eating, drinking, hunting, shivering, building a fire and putting on a warm coat. Homeostasis The process by which important physiological characteristics (such as body temperature and blood pressure) are regulated so that they remain at their optimum level. Deficits or imbalances motivate us because they cause us to perform the appropriate regulatory behaviours. A regulatory system has 4 essential features: System variable The variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism; for example, temperature in a heating system. Set point The optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism. The set point for human body temperature, recorded orally, is approximately 37 C. Detector In a regulatory process, a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point. Correctional mechanism In a regulatory process, the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system variable to the set point.
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