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Development Early Years.docx
Development Early Years.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA02 Jan 21, 2013 Development: Early Years Human babies are the babies of animal kingdom that are the least able to survive on its own.  Cannot defend itself A lot of physical development occurs before birth but it continues throughout our lifetime. Many animals have multiple children at once, so that maybe some will survive. Some animals have one child then nurture them extensively  Gender divide: women are more involved, most of the time.  Men, realistically, could father a child every day. Women could not have a new child every day. Every seven years, all of your body tissues etc have been replaced. Terminology Longitudal study: study people as they age, keeping the group of people constant.  Very hard to do scientifically.  Takes a very long time Stages  Prenatal; 38 weeks of pregnancy o Zygote (first two weeks) o Embryonic (two to eight weeks) o Fetal Stage (last seven months)  Infant/Toddler (birth to two years)  Adolescence (harder to define)  Adulthood and Old Age o Old age is very hard to label. People do not want to admit that they are old. o Old age is usually defined as 65+ Zygot Stage  Initial single begins cell dividing and differentiating o Eventually forming 200 different kind of cells (blood cells, nerve cells, muscle cells, bone cells, etc.) all with the same DNA. PSYA02 Jan 21, 2013 Embyonic Stage  The heart begins to beat  Critical stage with respect to the avoidance of so- called teratogens: cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and environmental toxins. These can cause birth defects and developmental/learning difficulties  Also where sexual differentiation occurs: importance of androgens and testosterone. o All babies start of as women;
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