Class Notes (806,696)
Canada (492,414)
Psychology (7,610)
PSYA02H3 (928)

Social Development and Parenting.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA02 Jan 28, 2013 Again, humans are pathetic. Our babies are one of the worst for being able to defend themselves. However, we have made it as far as we have because we are extremely social.  Want relationships, gain power through connections, need contact to feel loved This starts at birth. It is bi-directional – maternal instinct and the babies’ physical response.  Sucking … both for food or for comfort  Cuddling … comfort seems to signal security (Harlow’s work)  Looking … eye to eye contact to initiate interactions o Eye to eye contact seems to form an extremely strong bonds between human to human, and even animal to human  Smiling … the best reward of parenting? (5 weeks)  Crying … Teaching parents through negative reinforcement o Originally, babies cry because they need stuff. Eventually, they learn to cry because they want something. Maternal instinct is a weird thing: it takes a long time for babies to start reciprocating their mother’s love. It takes a while for babies to start smiling in response to their mothers, until then it seems like all attention comes from the mother. Other animals would abandon their babies for this lack of attention.  While some human parents do abandon their children, for the most part humans have adapted to remain with their children, to carry on their genetics. Harlow The wire monkey was uncomfortable and cold but could provide nourishment. The soft cloth monkey was more cuddly and warm, providing comfort. It ended up that the baby monkey would mainly stay attached to the cloth monkey because the comfort was stronger than the need for food, as the baby monkey would only visit the wire monkey for short periods of time. The monkey will still go to the cloth monkey, even when the cloth monkey hurts them because that need for comfort is so strong it surpasses the fear of pain and punishment. [Type text] PSYA02 Jan 28, 2013 Social Interaction in Infants  Humans generally have asymmetrical faces.  Humans acquire a great deal of social information from the nonverbal cues provided by others  The human face is a major source of non-verbal cues and babies attend preferentially to faces almost from birth Still face experiments 1. The mother interacts with baby as the baby inspects the environment 2. The mother presents a ‘still-face’ (no expression, interaction) to the baby 3. The baby tries to ‘fix’ their mother by providing cues such as smiling, laughing, pointing, waving hands. When there is no reaction still, the baby becomes extremely stressed and screeches and goes limp 4. When mother comes back with expression, the baby recovers almost immediately, smiling and laughing with mother. a. Mothers hate this test because they know they are causing stress to the
More Less

Related notes for PSYA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.