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PSYA02 - Chapter 12.docx

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 12PersonalityPERSONALITYis an individuals characteristic style of behaving thinking and feeling4 main approaches to understanding personality traitbiological Psychodynamic humanisticexistential social cognitive Personality What It Is and How It Is Measured Defining and Explaining Personality most personality psychologists focus on specific psychologically meaningful individual differencescharacteristics such as honesty or moodinesspersonality is often in the eye of the beholderstudies that ask acquaintances to describe each other find a high degree of similarity among any one individuals descriptions of many different peoplein contrast resemblance is quite low when people describe one person explanations of personality differences are concerned w PRIOR EVENTS that can shape an individuals personality ANTICIPATED EVENTS that might motivate the person to revealparticular personality characteristics researchers interested in events that happen prior to our behavior delve into our subconscious and into our circumstances and interpersonal surroundings as well as studying our biology and brainsthe consideration of ANTICIPATED EVENTS emphasizes the persons own perspective and often seems intimate and personal in its reflection of the persons inner lifehopes fears and aspirationspersonality psychologists study questions of how our personalities are determined by the forces in our minds and in our personal history of heredity and environment and by the choices we make and the goals we seekMeasuring Personality Personality InventoriesSELFREPORTa series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements and adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental statethe researcher then combines the answers to get a general sense of the individuals personality w respect to a particular domain the usual strategy to create a selfreport is to collect sets of selfdescriptive statements that indicate different degrees of a personality characteristic this kind of personality scale uses multiple answers to a variety of items that are related in content to gauge the underlying personality characteristic good selfreport scales can also be constructed wo much attention to the specific content of the itemsif people in some identifiable group answer ANY selfreport item differently than do other people then the answers on that item can be used to predict membership in that group this ACTUARIAL METHOD can be used to gauge personality even when the selfreport items are not clearly related in content to the characteristics being measuredthe actuarial method is MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY MMPI2a well researched clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problemsits 10 main subscales were generated by studying how specific groups of people as compared to the general population completed the items and then creating the scales from the items that these groups answered differently this measures tendencies toward clinical problems such as depression anxiety paranoia etcit also includes VALIDITY SCALES that assess a persons attitudes toward test taking and any tendency to try to distort the results by faking answersProjective TechniquesPROJECTIVE TECHNIQUESa standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individuals personalitydevelopers of projective tests assumed that people will project personality factors that are out of awareness such as wishes impulses onto ambiguous stimuli and will not censor these responseRORSCHACH INKBLOT TESTa projective personality tests in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondents inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST TATa projective personality test in which respondent reveal underlying motives concerns and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of peopledifferent people tell very different stories about the image that is given to themthe test taker is thought to identify w the main characters and to project his or her view of others and the world onto the other details in the drawing these TAT drawings tend to elicit a consistent set of themes such as successes and failures competition and jealousy conflict w parents and siblings etccritics argue that projective tests are open to subjective interpretation and theoretic biases of the examinerwhen measured by rigorous scientific criteria the TAT like the Rorschach and other tests has NOT been found reliable or valid in predicting behaviornew personality measurement methods are wireless communication realtime computer analysis and automated behavior identification
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