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Clinical Diagnosis.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA02 March 4, 2013 History  Shamans – probably schizophrenic, due to speaking to „spirits‟. This made them very popular in their culture because people wanted some help with the other world.  Witch trials – were these women actually talking to demons? There were some that were actually mentally ill. Also, around Salem, there was a bacteria in the bread that acted much like LSD. So that is a type of mental illness.  How to treat mental illness? Most people don‟t know how we‟re supposed to deal with this. o Stabbing on TTC – man had mental illness. His mother had tried to get help for him but there was none available. The police aren‟t interested with mental illness until a crime is caused. Hospitals can only provide medication and treatment as long as the patient will follow them.  Bedlam – back in Victorian times, the mentally ill were all just placed in this sort of psychiatric hospital. This was the only treatment for mental illness. Get them away from society. Was an awful place where patients were tied down and chained. o Eventually, when one doctor began to allow the patients outside and they began to improve. This began the idea that treatments were possible for mental illness. Defining ‘Abnormal’ Abnormal means anything that deviates from the norm.  For psychological context, maladaptive: meaning a person is abnormal in a way that causes social problems for them or others, problems that make it hard for them to adapt to society. Can be associated with: o Inability to hold a job o Marital/Relationship issues Psychodynamic Perspective When psychic conflict is too strong for defence mechanisms to deal with in healthy ways, they may actual distort one‟s perception of reality, or the person will function in ways reflective of an early developmental stage This can lead to psychological disorders that include: PSYA02 March 4, 2013  extreme anxiety, obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviour, depression, disturbed perceptions and thought disturbances, paralysis or blindness without physical cause Example: bedwetting – it‟s a cry for attention, child feels insecure in family. Get family to help child and child will stop. Medical Perspective. During the 18th and 19th centuries, people began to think about psychological disorders as reflecting biological causes This perspective of “mental illness” remains dominant, as represented in our own “mental health” program Three aspects of this perspective are very powerful in our world  The notion that many disorders reflect chemical imbalances  The notion that drugs can effectively be used to counter these o This can be dangerous – if we start giving so many neurotransmitters to help with chemical imbalances, the neurotransmitters can affect all sections of the brain not just the targeted section. Also, the brain will stop producing its own neurotransmitters and can cause a dependency on the artificial neurotransmitters.  The quest to find genetic links to mental diseases o People can have genetic markers for things such as alcoholism, that can come into play during stressful periods of life. Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective This perspective assumes that many maladaptive behaviours are learned, and can thus be best understood by focusing on potential relevant environmental factors and a person‟s perception thereof. Things that are learned can be unlearned, and doing so often requires a therapist to consider …  Current reinforcement contingencies  The manner in which the patient thinks about things o Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) – this can get the patient to rethink the way they believe/react to things. PSYA02 March 4, 2013 Bedwetting – alarm that goes off whenever child wets bed. Eventually, the child is conditioned to go to washroom before they wet the bed, because they have learned to predict the occurrence subconsciously. Humanist Perspective This perspective assumes that maladaptive behaviours arise when people place too much emphasis on gaining positive self-regard from others Therapie
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