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Behavioural and Cognitive Behavioural Therapies.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA02 March 25, 2013 Therapies Previously, therapy was about dealing with your thoughts and finding the problems that cause your psychological issues.  Psychodynamic. Even with the humanistic approach was more about finding solutions to help in day to day. These days, it‟s more about Classical and Operant Conditioning, Cognitive. I. Therapies based on Classical Conditioning Many anxiety disorders (e.g., phobias) are thought to have developed via classical conditioning. Thus, it should also be possible to use classical conditioning to counter these disorders  No longer about „talking out‟ the problems Systematic Desensitization – a technique designed to eliminate the unpleasant emotional response by the feared object or situation and replace it with an incompatible one = relaxation  You don‟t like a behaviour? Think of the opposite behaviour. Eventually, you think so much about the opposite behaviour that you can‟t think about the unwanted behaviour  Take over the sympathetic nervous system with the parasympathetic system  This works pretty well with social anxiety 1. Relaxation 1. Learn to relax 2. Associate the feeling with a trigger 3. Practice using the trigger 2. Hierarchy of Fears 1. Create Hierarchy PSYA02 March 25, 2013 2. Go through it slowly, using trigger 3. One cannot progress until they can remain relaxed on the previous step Hierarchy of Fears  Watching someone else public speak  Have others sing “happy birthday” to me  Be asked to give a toast at a small gathering of friends  Find oneself in a position of telling a long story to a group of friends who are listening  Be asked to give a toast at a formal wedding  Talk about something you know a lot about  Talk about something you know little about  This is the end goal The reason that this is successful is because the person learns that they are in control of their bodies and their sympathetic nervous system. Other CC-Based Therapies In Vivo Exposure: Forcing clients to directly face their fears until their fears extinguish … very stressful, though not dangerous … usually Imaginal Exposure: Same idea, except it relies on graphic imagery rather in vivo experiences (virtual reality) Aversion Therapy: Pairing a noxious (aversive) stimulus with some undesired behaviour Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning Reinforcement
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