Class Notes (835,500)
Canada (509,212)
Psychology (7,782)
PSYA02H3 (1,014)
Lecture

chapter 14-lectures.doc

12 Pages
91 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 14 Lecture 14 The relevance of Personality -personality tests taken prior to jobs- fit between who you are, your mind -implies that you have a stable personality -history- ancient greeks= personality reflected by the relative amount of 4 fluids in the body- blood, phlegem, yellow bile and black bile -personality traits by dominance of a particular fluid Types vs. Traits -people vary by different personality traits -no specific type of person but all of us have certain traits- some have more some have less -Scienties Allport- interested in personality, found 18,000 words to describe people, to find which traits are following. In his opinion 3 traits in individuals: 1.Cardinal trait- a trait that defines you. Example Freudian, empathy(mother teresa) 2.Central traits- major basic traits but not that dominant as cardinal (for ex describing a friend is central traits) 3.Secondary trait- not central but appears in certain situations -we now try to understand individual different characteristics -Cattell- took 140 words of Allport and made questionaire making people rate themselves. Factor analysis of 16 basic traits that people vary on -Eysenk’s- factor analysis of 3 factors- mix 3 personality traits and create about all person in the world: extroversion, emotionally stable/neuroticism, psychoticism(low impulse control/self-centered) -introverted(with active mind/internal stimulations), extraverted(external stimulation, -Neuroticism- constantly worried, frantic, anxious, nervous=opposite of emotionally stable -NEO-PI-R- most common personality assessment device/most validated- breaking down of psychoticism- big 5- extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness(in teamwork, employees), emotional stability/neuroticism, conscientiousness(best predictor in all jobs/employer wants in employees/ work on time/ professional in conduct) table. 14.1(book)- questionnaire mostly asked -worrying about cleanliness and good manners- not psychotic -worrying if your work is fine- conscientiousness -risk taking for fun-psychotic- openness - the dark triad- questionnaires about more dark traits 1. Narcissim- only about me/self observed/ negative trait 2. Machiavellianism- how to succeed in politics-book by political theorist/ backstab/friendly but don’t care about others/deceptive/want power 3. Psychopathy- low empathy/ nobody matters/ can hurt/ -Paul venardo-prototypical example of psychopath Lecture 15- Personality in context -single person have very distinct personalities (diff with friends and family) -personalities with partitions to memory -observational learning- we look at the consequences of others actions and learn -social cognitive theory of personality- personality is what we show through our behaviors. 3 aspects- our own beliefs/expectations, behavior and environment/reinforces -Albert Bandera- we learn a lot by observational learning- Modeling -locus of control- internal and external -external- people tend to develop biases in life, don’t take responsibility of bad outcomes and blame someone else -internal- having sense that you have the tendency to control the outcomes. High locus of control=take responsibility of bad outcomes, more likely to feel confident if they have the ability for that situation-high self efficacy -high efficacy when person is confident -different reward contingencies in different situations/environment (ex swearing in family and friends) -Person variable- having an expectation in environment- environment changes so personality also changes -zimbardo psychologist- prisoner experiment- reward framework- you cant ignore the situation -situationism- people are reactants and situations are critical and a determinant -Person variables 1. competencies- confident about our skills to get positive outcomes. Negotiate the situations and make happen what we want 2. encoding strategies- get a sense of which behaviors are rewarded in which situations, assess situations well 3. expectancies- observational learning 4. subjective values- whistleblower, you know the right and wrong way to behave but b/c of your values refuse to behave which will be rewarded- determinant of how situation will turnout 5. self regulation- notion of longer term plans- reward contingencies play out multiple time scales. Behavior linked to series of consequences sooner or later. Having a longer term plan hope to achieve in future and know which behaviors would support you to achieve your goal. -Positive psychology came out of personality work- positive traits -males are less forgiving- forgiveness allows to keep social bonds Lecture 16 -Sigmund Freud- draws conclusions from his observations- physiologist -1 one to say mind can have strong influence on body=psychic energy -primitive drives which push us to behave in a certain way and people infer our personality through this behavior -a lot of drives are unconscious- we aren’t aware of -psychological conflicts b/w 3 entities causing energy to be released in some manner 1. Instinct- animalistic instincts 2. Reason- thinking ability 3. Conscience- -Instint ID- raw basic biological/sexual drives -pleasure principle- desire to achieve immediate gratification -Freud thought ID is completely unconscious and is primal thoughts -sexual drives and aggressive drives- most stressed -Superego- part of our mind to make us fit in society-egocentric. 2 parts ego- ideal, conscience -Ego ideal- figures out what society values and the behaviors associated with it -conscience- internalizes all the rules and punishes of wrong doings by feelings like guilt -ego- processes tries to satisfy the needs of ID in ways acceptable to the superego -ego gets creative in aggressive and sexual -freuds claim= all ids including super ego is unconscious -Dream analysis- road to unconscious- little super ego involved, he claims sexual and aggressive themes were playing out but were disguised -latent content- ID produced theory, manifest content- real story and not compromised -defense mechanisms according to freud to satisfy ID: repression, regression, displacement, sublimation, reaction formation, projection, rationalization,conversion -sublimation is the positive approach by freud -Psychsexual Theory- sensual pleasures- as we develop we focus more on erogenous zones=giving sensual pleasures -Fixated- get stuck in a stage, these fixations can determine our personality -stages: Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital -anal- worrying about small things Lecture 17 -freud’s theory popular and controversial -in the development process he stressed on sexuality -Carl Jung-disagreed with freud- discussed mysticism, alchemy etc -libido-source of our drives -Jung saw libido as positive source -Collective unconscious- we inherit basic cognitive processes that help us recognize certain aspects of life from our ancestors- important in helping people see things same way and work in teams, more positive less about sexuality -Alfred Adler- thought sexuality is not important at all - we are inferior beings during childhood and are dependent -our biggest motivation in life is to become superior, powerful, and independent -social interest- freud said ED is the source of everything but adler thought we really want to contribute to society -Karen Horney -more about anxiety- relationships with others which feed our needs- important for Karen -orientations people develop- we look at people with regards to relationships people develop -Erik Erikson -personality development goes on throughout life -social crises shape our personality- nothing special about childhood in erikson Humanist approach- -self-actualization- becoming comfortable about who you are, how the situation is and desires to make better changes to world -how to get there- Maslow- studied people who reached self-actualization= Einstein and Thoreau -Maslow’s hierarchy of needs= physiological, safety/security, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization -Carl Rogers- we all need to feel worth-while Chapter 15 Lecture 18 -Social Psychology- understanding individual within a social world. How the actual, imagined or implied presence of others influences our thoughts, feelings and behaviors -social cognition- how people attend to, perceive, interpret and respond to the social world -one key of study is impression formation- the way we integrate information about another’s traits into a coherent sense of who the person is -central theme of cognitive psychology = Schemata -we form schemas of others- mental framework that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place or thing -sometimes this information is what we assume to be true Forming Impressions of others -Central Traits-attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of others -cold is more powerful than warm -Ash’s test focused on warm-cold trait The Primacy Effect- first impressions of people based on the first information we receive about them -attributions are important The Self -knowledge, feelings and ideas about yourself -self-schema- represents and synthesizes information about yourself -self concepts continuously change -potential effect of culture on self -cross-cultural psychologists-studies effect of culture on behavior -the biggest cross cultural effect- east vs west -west-value independence construal- uniqueness of the self, self reliance -east-interdependence construal- interconnectedness of people -form our attributions is the disposition (internal) vs. situation (external) attributions we make when we witness behaviour -consensual- behave shared by many people -distinctiveness- differ behave towards different people, events -consistency- behave consistent across time towards another person, event Attributional Biases -Fundamental Attribution error- we overemphasize disposition and don’t consider situational factors when we form impression of others. We do the opposite when we form impression about ourself-overemphasize situational factors- called actor-observer effect -self-serving bias- attribute accomplishments to internal causes and failures to external -belief in just world- people deserve bad outcomes b/c they are bad and the world is just- blaming the victim -what comes to mind easily effect disproportionately towards our decision making -Availability Heuristic- person judges the importance of an event by the ease of examples coming to mind -representativeness heuristic- our temptation to overuse information sometimes- classify an object to category which it appears to be the most similar -base-rate fallacy- failure to consider the likelihood that a person is a member of particular category on the basis of mathematical probabilities Cognitive, Affective and Behavioural components of Attitudes -Cognitive=rational- includes conscious beliefs -affective= mere exposure, direct and vicarious classical conditioning -mere exposure- formation of a positive attitude towards a person, place or thing by repeate exposure to that person -behavioural- often our behaviours don’t interact with our cognition- -behaviours are specific events Attitude Change -elaborate likelihood model- effectiveness of persuasion- attitude change through persuasion by central route and peripheral route -central route- person thinks critically about the argument to weigh strengths and weaknesses -peripheral route- change is associate with positive stimuli example an attractive/famous person -Leon Festinger-cognitive dissonance theory-strong motivator-attitude can be motivated by an unpleasant sate of tension caused by a disparity b/w a person’s belief or attitudes about his behavior -source of human motivation is dissonance reduction-reducing dissonance elements, adding consonant elements or changing one of the dissonant elements -Induced compliance- engaging in a particular behavior at another person’s request -Arousal and Attitude change- dissonance reduction is motivated by an aversive drive -Attitudes and Expenditures- tendency to value an item more if it costs us something is time, effort or money -Daryl Bem
More Less

Related notes for PSYA02H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit