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chapter 14-lectures.doc

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 14 Lecture 14 The relevance of Personality -personality tests taken prior to jobs- fit between who you are, your mind -implies that you have a stable personality -history- ancient greeks= personality reflected by the relative amount of 4 fluids in the body- blood, phlegem, yellow bile and black bile -personality traits by dominance of a particular fluid Types vs. Traits -people vary by different personality traits -no specific type of person but all of us have certain traits- some have more some have less -Scienties Allport- interested in personality, found 18,000 words to describe people, to find which traits are following. In his opinion 3 traits in individuals: 1.Cardinal trait- a trait that defines you. Example Freudian, empathy(mother teresa) 2.Central traits- major basic traits but not that dominant as cardinal (for ex describing a friend is central traits) 3.Secondary trait- not central but appears in certain situations -we now try to understand individual different characteristics -Cattell- took 140 words of Allport and made questionaire making people rate themselves. Factor analysis of 16 basic traits that people vary on -Eysenk’s- factor analysis of 3 factors- mix 3 personality traits and create about all person in the world: extroversion, emotionally stable/neuroticism, psychoticism(low impulse control/self-centered) -introverted(with active mind/internal stimulations), extraverted(external stimulation, -Neuroticism- constantly worried, frantic, anxious, nervous=opposite of emotionally stable -NEO-PI-R- most common personality assessment device/most validated- breaking down of psychoticism- big 5- extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness(in teamwork, employees), emotional stability/neuroticism, conscientiousness(best predictor in all jobs/employer wants in employees/ work on time/ professional in conduct) table. 14.1(book)- questionnaire mostly asked -worrying about cleanliness and good manners- not psychotic -worrying if your work is fine- conscientiousness -risk taking for fun-psychotic- openness - the dark triad- questionnaires about more dark traits 1. Narcissim- only about me/self observed/ negative trait 2. Machiavellianism- how to succeed in politics-book by political theorist/ backstab/friendly but don’t care about others/deceptive/want power 3. Psychopathy- low empathy/ nobody matters/ can hurt/ -Paul venardo-prototypical example of psychopath Lecture 15- Personality in context -single person have very distinct personalities (diff with friends and family) -personalities with partitions to memory -observational learning- we look at the consequences of others actions and learn -social cognitive theory of personality- personality is what we show through our behaviors. 3 aspects- our own beliefs/expectations, behavior and environment/reinforces -Albert Bandera- we learn a lot by observational learning- Modeling -locus of control- internal and external -external- people tend to develop biases in life, don’t take responsibility of bad outcomes and blame someone else -internal- having sense that you have the tendency to control the outcomes. High locus of control=take responsibility of bad outcomes, more likely to feel confident if they have the ability for that situation-high self efficacy -high efficacy when person is confident -different reward contingencies in different situations/environment (ex swearing in family and friends) -Person variable- having an expectation in environment- environment changes so personality also changes -zimbardo psychologist- prisoner experiment- reward framework- you cant ignore the situation -situationism- people are reactants and situations are critical and a determinant -Person variables 1. competencies- confident about our skills to get positive outcomes. Negotiate the situations and make happen what we want 2. encoding strategies- get a sense of which behaviors are rewarded in which situations, assess situations well 3. expectancies- observational learning 4. subjective values- whistleblower, you know the right and wrong way to behave but b/c of your values refuse to behave which will be rewarded- determinant of how situation will turnout 5. self regulation- notion of longer term plans- reward contingencies play out multiple time scales. Behavior linked to series of consequences sooner or later. Having a longer term plan hope to achieve in future and know which behaviors would support you to achieve your goal. -Positive psychology came out of personality work- positive traits -males are less forgiving- forgiveness allows to keep social bonds Lecture 16 -Sigmund Freud- draws conclusions from his observations- physiologist -1 one to say mind can have strong influence on body=psychic energy -primitive drives which push us to behave in a certain way and people infer our personality through this behavior -a lot of drives are unconscious- we aren’t aware of -psychological conflicts b/w 3 entities causing energy to be released in some manner 1. Instinct- animalistic instincts 2. Reason- thinking ability 3. Conscience- -Instint ID- raw basic biological/sexual drives -pleasure principle- desire to achieve immediate gratification -Freud thought ID is completely unconscious and is primal thoughts -sexual drives and aggressive drives- most stressed -Superego- part of our mind to make us fit in society-egocentric. 2 parts ego- ideal, conscience -Ego ideal- figures out what society values and the behaviors associated with it -conscience- internalizes all the rules and punishes of wrong doings by feelings like guilt -ego- processes tries to satisfy the needs of ID in ways acceptable to the superego -ego gets creative in aggressive and sexual -freuds claim= all ids including super ego is unconscious -Dream analysis- road to unconscious- little super ego involved, he claims sexual and aggressive themes were playing out but were disguised -latent content- ID produced theory, manifest content- real story and not compromised -defense mechanisms according to freud to satisfy ID: repression, regression, displacement, sublimation, reaction formation, projection, rationalization,conversion -sublimation is the positive approach by freud -Psychsexual Theory- sensual pleasures- as we develop we focus more on erogenous zones=giving sensual pleasures -Fixated- get stuck in a stage, these fixations can determine our personality -stages: Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital -anal- worrying about small things Lecture 17 -freud’s theory popular and controversial -in the development process he stressed on sexuality -Carl Jung-disagreed with freud- discussed mysticism, alchemy etc -libido-source of our drives -Jung saw libido as positive source -Collective unconscious- we inherit basic cognitive processes that help us recognize certain aspects of life from our ancestors- important in helping people see things same way and work in teams, more positive less about sexuality -Alfred Adler- thought sexuality is not important at all - we are inferior beings during childhood and are dependent -our biggest motivation in life is to become superior, powerful, and independent -social interest- freud said ED is the source of everything but adler thought we really want to contribute to society -Karen Horney -more about anxiety- relationships with others which feed our needs- important for Karen -orientations people develop- we look at people with regards to relationships people develop -Erik Erikson -personality development goes on throughout life -social crises shape our personality- nothing special about childhood in erikson Humanist approach- -self-actualization- becoming comfortable about who you are, how the situation is and desires to make better changes to world -how to get there- Maslow- studied people who reached self-actualization= Einstein and Thoreau -Maslow’s hierarchy of needs= physiological, safety/security, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization -Carl Rogers- we all need to feel worth-while Chapter 15 Lecture 18 -Social Psychology- understanding individual within a social world. How the actual, imagined or implied presence of others influences our thoughts, feelings and behaviors -social cognition- how people attend to, perceive, interpret and respond to the social world -one key of study is impression formation- the way we integrate information about another’s traits into a coherent sense of who the person is -central theme of cognitive psychology = Schemata -we form schemas of others- mental framework that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place or thing -sometimes this information is what we assume to be true Forming Impressions of others -Central Traits-attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of others -cold is more powerful than warm -Ash’s test focused on warm-cold trait The Primacy Effect- first impressions of people based on the first information we receive about them -attributions are important The Self -knowledge, feelings and ideas about yourself -self-schema- represents and synthesizes information about yourself -self concepts continuously change -potential effect of culture on self -cross-cultural psychologists-studies effect of culture on behavior -the biggest cross cultural effect- east vs west -west-value independence construal- uniqueness of the self, self reliance -east-interdependence construal- interconnectedness of people -form our attributions is the disposition (internal) vs. situation (external) attributions we make when we witness behaviour -consensual- behave shared by many people -distinctiveness- differ behave towards different people, events -consistency- behave consistent across time towards another person, event Attributional Biases -Fundamental Attribution error- we overemphasize disposition and don’t consider situational factors when we form impression of others. We do the opposite when we form impression about ourself-overemphasize situational factors- called actor-observer effect -self-serving bias- attribute accomplishments to internal causes and failures to external -belief in just world- people deserve bad outcomes b/c they are bad and the world is just- blaming the victim -what comes to mind easily effect disproportionately towards our decision making -Availability Heuristic- person judges the importance of an event by the ease of examples coming to mind -representativeness heuristic- our temptation to overuse information sometimes- classify an object to category which it appears to be the most similar -base-rate fallacy- failure to consider the likelihood that a person is a member of particular category on the basis of mathematical probabilities Cognitive, Affective and Behavioural components of Attitudes -Cognitive=rational- includes conscious beliefs -affective= mere exposure, direct and vicarious classical conditioning -mere exposure- formation of a positive attitude towards a person, place or thing by repeate exposure to that person -behavioural- often our behaviours don’t interact with our cognition- -behaviours are specific events Attitude Change -elaborate likelihood model- effectiveness of persuasion- attitude change through persuasion by central route and peripheral route -central route- person thinks critically about the argument to weigh strengths and weaknesses -peripheral route- change is associate with positive stimuli example an attractive/famous person -Leon Festinger-cognitive dissonance theory-strong motivator-attitude can be motivated by an unpleasant sate of tension caused by a disparity b/w a person’s belief or attitudes about his behavior -source of human motivation is dissonance reduction-reducing dissonance elements, adding consonant elements or changing one of the dissonant elements -Induced compliance- engaging in a particular behavior at another person’s request -Arousal and Attitude change- dissonance reduction is motivated by an aversive drive -Attitudes and Expenditures- tendency to value an item more if it costs us something is time, effort or money -Daryl Bem
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