PSYA02 March 22, 2013
Mental disorders = demons in skull.
The solution? Drill hole in person‟s head to let
the spirit out.
Mental disorders = loss of humanity
People were treated like animals because they had no humanity left
So they were put away, out of sight, put in asylums (NOT a nice place)
Magnetic rods used to „heal‟ people – Mesmer would tell people that the magnets
would help them, using forceful/reassuring voice.
o People did get better – not because of magnets but by power of
o Birth of hypnosis
Did use hypnosis a bit
Started with hypnosis but gave it up
Birth of clinical psychology
Assumes the people have learned maladaptive thought patterns and emotions, which
are revealed in maladaptive behaviours.
Behaviours reflective of some deeper psychological issue and when patient
understands the true cause (i.e., gainst insight) the maladaptive behaviours will subside. PSYA02 March 22, 2013
This was Freud‟s style of treatment
Insight had problems – people are not actually aware of their trauma, as they‟re being
protected from you. This makes making insights about this extremely difficult. Is very
hard to get around the defenses.
As well, people may not want to find cause because they don‟t want to recognize
Free association, dreams, other projective tests
o Free association – if you apply a certain word to another, it may indicate
o Dreams – defenses are down. Subject may not actually dream of cause
but Freud would interpret it as something
o Projective tests – tell stories about a picture (can be viewed positively or
negatively; how the person responds to it indicates the trauma)