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Lecture 3

PSYA02H3 Lecture 3: Understanding Intelligence (Where Does Intelligence Come From?) [Lecture Notes]

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Lecture 3: Where Does Intelligence Come From? Verbal vs. Nonverbal (Remember Validity?) Gave the SimonBenet IQ test to both black and white children o Found that on average the Black children did worse than the white children o This was used by an important government official at the time in the USA to argue for segregated schooling o The children from Harlem had trouble understanding the questions and so when the test was given in Jive, the black children did better than the white children because there was a language mismatch Ravens Progressive Matrices Solution to the languagecultural mismatch is the Ravens Progressive Matrices so no one is at a disadvantage when writing the test o This tests problem solving skills without having to use language Are Some Things Not Meant to Be Scientific? Rushton claim that he gets from data: o He looks at 3 racial groups (African American, Caucasian, and Asian) o He puts them on two continuums of intelligence and sexuality o He says African American are much more sexual, Caucasian middle sexuality, and Asian least sexual Intelligence as Evidence of Intelligent Design Intelligent design is believing that life, or the universe, cannot have arisen by chance and was designed and created by some intelligent entity Is Intelligence Even a Single Thing? We often term intelligence as being a single characteristic a person possesses o Someone is intelligent Analogy: o Athletic capability o If someone is a great athlete in one sport, it doesnt imply they will be a good athlete in another sport Thurstone Seven Cattell Two Factor Analysis: statistical procedure that if you do well on one thing it leads to doing well in another with a common characteristic Using the factor analytic approach, Thurstone found 7 factors that make up intelligence; verbal comprehension (receiving information), verbal fluency (expressing information), number, spatial visualization (imagine things in your mind), memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed Cattell found that 2 factors underlie the 7 factors o Fluid intelligence (Gf) and Crystal Intelligence (Gc) o Fluid intelligence (Gf): it is our natural ability, would learn and pick things up in all contexts (natural intelligence)
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