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Psychology - Session 14

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Steve Joordens

● attitude formation ● change attitudes ○ two ways ■ 1. direct ● requires attention and interest of audience ■ 2. peripheral ● classical condition ● cognitive dissonance ○ Leon Festinger ■ curious to know how the minds of people would change ● people did not go through radical change in belief ■ interested in process ● why did the people not change their beliefs ■ focused on notion of discrepancy ● beliefs and attitudes conflict with data of reality ■ dissonance ● belief in something that does not exist in reality ■ experience of dissonance, reduced by ● reducing importance of dissonant parts ● adding consonant elements ● changing one of the dissonant elements ● relevance of induced compliance ○ reformulation of situation to not feel stupid ■ if you find yourself doing something stupid ● (when you think of yourself as clever) ● dissonance and perceived value ○ raising price suggests more value ● Lucy, the skeleton ○ bipedal with a primate size skull ○ shows that bipedalism developed before larger brain size ● possible reasons for bipedalism ○ attraction, mating, love ● mating strategies ○ K style characteristics ■ few children ■ intensively raised ○ R style characteristics ■ many children ■ leave on their own ● primates tend to be extremely K style ○ problematic because fewer offspring due to heavy care ● pair-bonds formed through bipedalism claim ○ if on all-fours, offspring must ‘hang off’ the mother ■ mother can only take and care for one baby ○ bipedal mother is able to have more than one offspring ■ still able to care for offspring in K style ■ cannot care for offspring and provide at the same time ■ needs a mate that consistently provides food and shelter ● formation of long-term pair-bonds ● animal mating strategies ○ highly seasonal ■ males will have sex with any female in heat ○ males are only interested in the female during the mating period ■ leave the female after birthing of offspring ● males evolved in a cognitive manner ○ change led to long-term pair-bonds with mates ○ males did not go for every female in heat ■ not enough for the mate to be bipedal ○ males fell in love with specific individuals rather than gender ■ became attracted to specific features of a female
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