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Physchology notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 9: Language and Thought - Example: Christopher learned languages very quickly, but has trouble with simple cognitive tests and can’t make decisions or reason he lives in a halfway house - 5 major cognitive functions: acquiring and using language, forming concepts and categories, making decisions, solving problems, reasoning (all necessary for everyday life) Language and Communication: from ruling to meaning - species have systems of communication to allow them to transmit messages to each other Language- a system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning Grammar- a set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages - Three distinctions of human language: 1) complex structure 2) words used to refer to intangible things 3) languages used to categorize, name, and describe things to ourselves when we think Complex Structure of Human Language- fairly recent evolutionary phenomenon Basic Structure - Phonemes- the smallest units of sound that are recognizable as speech rather than as random noises ( difference in the sound of p and b) - Phonological rules- indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds (ts in German but not in English, if not followed described to have an accent) - Morphemes- smallest meaningful unit of language (words like pat, that have meaning) - Grammar rules of 2 categories: 1) Morphological rules- indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words Two types of Morphemes: a) content= refer to things/events (dog, take) b) function= tying sentences together (but, and) or indicate time (when), makes language complex 2) Syntactical rules- indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences Meaning: Deep vs. Surface Structure Deep Structure- meaning of a structure Surface Structure- how a sentence is worded - To write a sentence you start with a deep structure and create a surface structure - To read/ comprehend it is the opposite, after deep structure is extracted surface is forgotten - Study shows people will forget the wording but rarely ever mistake the true meaning Language Development - 3 characteristic of learning: 1) children learn at a rapid rate 2) make few errors, errors made usually from overgeneralizing rules learned 3) passive mastery of language develops faster than active mastery (understand better than they speak) Distinguishing Speech Sounds - Babies can distinguish all contrasting sounds in human language but ability lost after 6 months and only distinguish sounds in the language they hear spoken (Japanese baby study of r and s) - 4-6 months, babies start to babble speech sounds (all babies babble in a similar pattern even deaf babies), important part of language development process - For babbling to continue babies must hear themselves (deaf babies babble using ASL) Language Milestones - 10-12 months babies utter first words - 18 months say about 50 words and can understand several times more than that - Learn nouns before verbs (names of objects), undergo explosive growth Fast Mapping- children map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure Telegraphic speech- devoid of function morphemes and consist mostly of content words (ex. more milk) – happens at 24 months, phrases follow syntactical rules Emergence of Grammatical Rules - 2/3 year olds use correct past tense (I ran) but by 4/5 they start saying I ranned - Reason is that very young kids memorize s
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