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Steve Joordens

Chapter 8 Antecedents: Stimulus Control ~Antecedents affect behaviour and vary in the degree to which they are effective Setting the occasion for behavior Antecedents-cues that precede and set the occasion for behaviour-they lead us to do,think,or feel something eg. You are thirsty and see a water fountain set you for using the fountain to get the drink ~we learn cues that tell us when and where to perform or not perform responses by lining the cues with the behaviour and its consequences Types of Antecedents In a context that arouses behaviour is a stimulus; we can use any stimulus as an antecedent eg. Teacher ask question sets occasion for students to raise their hands ~antecedents involve any of our sense and differ from one person to the next Overt and covert antecedents  Overt antecedents-observable through our sense eg. Seeing a dog  Covert antecedents-internal eg. Feeling tired Immediate and Distant antecedents Immediate antecedents-present shortly before the behaviour occurs eg. Hear someone yell ‘fire’ and you exit away or immediately stopping on a red traffic light ~training can help people learn the cues they fail to learn on their own ~antecedents can be ongoing, not just discrete as the above examples eg. Elderly communicated more frequently as staff rearranged the furniture Distant antecedents-antecedents precede the behaviour over a time period; continue to affect behavior for a long time after the occurrence of the actual antecedent because they have strong emotional/covert components eg. Abused women influenced by the frequent thoughts about that event ~analyzing to design an intervention need to seek behaviors existing antecedents Overt and immediate antecedents are easy to identify because they are observable before the target behavior occurs Covert and distant antecedents are difficult to identify since not observable Antecedent Functions  Motivational function-affects the effectiveness of a consequence for a behavior eg. If thirsty, water is more likely to be a reinforce for the behavior you make-using the fountain  Discriminative function- a stimulus you can distinguish from many other objects eg. Learned that water fountain leads to a particular type of consequence aside from other objects: water is a reinforcement Discriminative Stimuli D Discriminative stimulus (S ), a cue that sets the occasion for a particular response and signals that the response will be followed by a particular type of consequence eg. Silhouettes, tell people that both genders may use the washroom D, ~in the presence of S the behavior is likely to continue or increase if it was reinforced in the past or to occur less frequently if it was punished eg. Hear a dial tone and could dial the number you want because in the past learned that phone works (reinforced) only if the dial tone sounds ~Many cases, the discriminative function of an antecedent is the main determinant of its effect on behavior ~Discriminative and motivational functions of antecedents have two features in common: exist before the target behavior occurs and increase the likelihood that the behavior will occur ~Making a response depends strongly on people’s motivation; analysts may try to increase that motivation by establishing operations Establishing Operations Establishing Operations-procedure that increases the effectiveness of a particular consequence- a reinforce or punisher-on a performance of a target behavior, which enhances the motivational function of the antecedent conditions; determines what an individual wants or needs as a reinforce at a given time eg. Person hungry so food effective reinforce than it was soon after a meal  Deprivation-presenting the S when the person has been without a specificreinforcer,eg. Food,for a period of time Learning antecedents ~to respond to different requests, individual must have learned to distinguish among Stimulus discrimination Discrimination traini
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